JUSTICE SOCIETY OF AMERICA

The Golden Age Batman

Chronology, Part 4: The Silver Age and Beyond

By Aaron Severson

Reference the Creator Credit Abbreviations

Sequence of Events

Issue (Date)

1956

Batman gives a lecture at the Kean School of Makeup, the school founded by famed impersonator Barrett Kean, who trained Batman in the art of disguise many years earlier. ?/SM/CP

Detective #227 (Jan. 1956)

Batman and Robin travel back in time to turn-of-the-century Paris to meet Jules Verne, who briefly returns with them to the year 1956. AD/DS/CP
NOTES: This was the first time that Professor Carter Nichols sent Batman and Robin back in time rather than Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson; Nichols was not aware of their true identities.

Batman #98 [1] (March 1956)

When the television program Man to Man broadcasts a live interview with Batman from the Batcave, a gang of crooks uses the opportunity to surreptitiously make a microfilm copy of Batman's punch-card crime files. ?/DS/CP
NOTES: The Man to Man program in this story was clearly modeled on the real-life primetime interview series Person to Person, which ran on CBS from 1953 to 1960 (and was briefly revived in the summer of 1961). The weekly series, created and hosted (until 1959) by journalist Edward R. Murrow, used the then-new technology of the coaxial cable to allow Murrow, broadcasting from his studio in New York, to conduct live interviews with celebrities in their homes.

Detective #229 (March 1956)

Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson travel back in time to the year 1880, where they meet Bat Masterson. EH/SM/CP

Batman #99 [2] (April 1956)

When both Superman and Batman are invited to a wedding anniversary party thrown by Perry White for Clark and Lois Lane Kent, Dick Grayson temporarily becomes Batman to allow Bruce Wayne to masquerade as Superman. ENB/KS/FC
NOTES: While Perry White was the editor of the Daily Planet (and Clark Kent's boss) on Earth-One, Perry's Earth-Two counterpart was a senior reporter for the Daily Star.

Superman Family #216 (March 1982)

Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, and Clark Kent travel back in time to 17th-century France to investigate the identity of the Man in the Iron Mask. EH/DS/SK

World's Finest #82 (May/June 1956)

Stricken with amnesia while in costume, Batman and Robin are forced to deduce their own true identities. EH/SM/CP
NOTES: This story includes a flashback to Batman's first meeting with Commissioner Gordon, an event that definitely took place on Earth-One, since that meeting is recounted in Untold Legends of the Batman #1 (July 1980), the definitive origin of the Earth-One Batman. That meeting's place in Earth-Two continuity is speculative, as is the placement of this story.

Detective #234 (Aug. 1956)

Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson are sent back in time to ancient Babylon, circa 1000 B.C. BF/DS/CP

Batman #102 [2] (Sept. 1956)

Batman discovers that the man responsible for his parents' murder was actually Lew Moxon, a gangster whom Thomas Wayne helped to send to prison — ironically, while dressed in a masquerade bat-man costume — while Bruce Wayne was still a young boy; Joe Chill was not a mugger, but a hitman in Moxon's employ. Due to a previous head injury, Moxon no longer remembers his involvement in Thomas Wayne's death, but Batman successfully shocks Moxon into regaining his memory by confronting him in the old bat-man costume. However, Moxon flees into the path of an oncoming delivery truck and dies before he can be arrested. BF/SM/SK
NOTES: As previously noted, the chronology of this story is not easily reconciled with the dates of the Earth-Two Bruce Wayne's birth or the murders of Thomas and Martha Wayne. Thomas' diary was also accompanied by a sound film, something that was not generally available until several years after Earth-Two's Thomas and Martha Wayne were killed. While these events definitely took place on Earth-One (as established in Untold Legend of the Batman #1 (July 1980), their placement in Earth-Two continuity is at best speculative.

Detective #235 (Sept. 1956)

Batman is feted on a coast-to-coast television program celebrating Gotham City's annual Batman Day holiday. BF/DS

Batman #103 [1] (Oct. 1956)

1957

Commissioner Gordon briefly adopts the identity of Mysteryman to capture a gang of crooks who have eluded both the police and Batman and Robin. EH/SM/CP

Detective #245 (June 1957)

Well-known philanthropist John Mayhew summons a group of international heroes, including Batman and Robin, Superman, the Knight and the Squire, the Legionary, the Gaucho, and the Musketeer, to form the Club of Heroes, operating out of a lavishly appointed clubhouse in Metropolis. EH/DS/SK
NOTES: As previously mentioned, in the post-Crisis universe, the Knight, Squire, Legionary, Gaucho and Musketeer were inspired not by Batman, but by the JSA. While there is no indication that these heroes formed the Club of Heroes in post-Crisis continuity, in March 1957 they did form an organization called the Dome, subsequently the parent organization of the Global Guardians; see Infinity, Inc. #34 (Jan. 1987). Grant Morrison later reintroduced the Club of Heroes to post-Infinite Crisis Earth-0 continuity, explaining that they were contemporaries of the current Batman, and organized sometime after Dick Grayson became Robin. In this iteration (which presumably retcons the account in Infinity, Inc.), the Club's membership included the Knight and the Squire, the Legionary, the Gaucho, the Musketeer, the Ranger, Man-of-Bats, Little Raven, and Wingman; it is unclear whether Superman was ever involved with the group. This version of the Club of Heroes was first mentioned by Alfred in JLA Classified #1 (Jan. 2005), with their brief history recapped in flashback in Batman #667–669 (Sept.–Nov. 2007), by Grant Morrison and J.H. Williams III. The latter story suggested a much darker motivation for John Mayhew, who was later revealed to be a member of the malevolent organization known as the Black Glove.


World's Finest #89 (July/Aug. 1957)

Batman temporarily assumes a new identity as Starman after the sinister Professor Milo has caused him to develop a paralyzing fear of bats. Robin eventually helps Batman overcome his phobia, defeat Milo, and resume his normal costumed guise. BF/SM/CP
NOTES: This story apparently inspired writer James Robinson to introduce the mysterious 1950s Starman in the post-Zero Hour Starman series. That character's existence was first revealed in Starman Secret Files & Origins #1 (April 1998), although he had no relationship to Batman.

Detective #247 (Sept. 1957)

Sept. 7, 1957: Helena Wayne, the daughter of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle Wayne, is born in Gotham City.
NOTES: A personnel profile in Infinity, Inc. #7 gave Helena's birth date as Sept. 7, 1959, but Helena's first appearance in DC Special #17 says she was born "two years" after her parents' wedding, i.e., in 1957. Helena's tombstone in Last Days of the JSA Special (1986) confirmed the year of her birth as 1957.

(DC Super-Stars #17, Nov./Dec. 1977)
(Infinity, Inc. #7, Oct. 1984)
(Last Days of the JSA, 1986)

Batman and Robin travel back in time more than 2,000 years to rescue Professor Carter Nichols, who has been captured by King Phorbus of Rhodes. EH/DS/CP
NOTES: This story indicates that Nichols has devised a "time ray," to replace his traditional "time hypnosis" method.

Batman #112 [2] (Dec. 1957)

Batman unexpectedly passes out after apprehending Professor Milo for a second time and regains consciousness to find that he has been committed to a psychiatric hospital. To his dismay, no one around him believes that he is really Batman — including Dick Grayson and Alfred, who insist that he is not really Bruce Wayne either. Robin eventually explains that all these events have been part of an elaborate scheme to keep Batman active long enough to overcome the debilitating, potentially lethal effects of a toxin to which he was exposed during his confrontation with Milo. BF/SM/CP
NOTES: Although this story was published only three months after Professor Milo's previous appearance in Detective Comics #247, which was written and drawn by the same creative team, Milo looks completely different in each story, with distinct facial features, hair style, and even hair color. It is possible that each story's villain was intended to be a completely different criminal scientist, but their similar M.O.s led to an 11th-hour editorial decision to make the two characters the same person, albeit without revising the artwork accordingly. Placing these stories in Earth-Two continuity is somewhat speculative because there was also an Earth-One Professor Milo, who next appeared in Batman #255 (Mar./Apr. 1974). That story affirmed that it was indeed the same Professor Milo in both earlier stories and that both were part of Earth-One continuity.

Batman #112 [3] (Dec. 1957)

1958

Senator O'Fallon, the man responsible for driving the Justice Society into retirement, dies in a mysterious fire. His son, who goes on to become the owner of Washington, D.C.'s Capitol Globe newspaper, later assumes that the JSA was responsible for his father's death. RT/RK/AA

(America vs. the JSA #1, Jan. 1985)

Batman is transported to the distant planet Zur-En-Arrh by Tlano, an alien scientist who fights crime as "the Batman of Zur-En-Arrh." The real Batman — who discovers that the alien environment gives him powers similar to Superman's — agrees to help Tlano repel an invasion from another world. After Batman returns to Earth, he suspects that the entire incident was a dream until he discovers that he still has the "Bat-Radia," a gadget Tlano gave him as a souvenir. FH/DS/CP
NOTES: These events also took place in post-Infinite Crisis continuity, but were actually a hallucination. However, Batman later used that vision as the basis of a "backup personality" intended to protect him against psychological assault, as explained in Batman #678–680 (Aug.–Oct. 2008), written by Grant Morrison and drawn by Tony Daniels.

Batman #113 [3] (Feb. 1958)

Batman and Robin travel back in time to the Middle East in the eighth century A.D., where they meet the Zotos. BF/FM/CP

Batman #115 [3] (April 1958)

Batman develops the Whirly-Bat, a remarkable one-man rotary aircraft. BF/SM/CP

Detective #257 (July 1958)

Bruce Wayne reveals his secret identity to his elderly dying uncle, Silas Wayne, who had previously complained that Bruce was an embarrassment to the proud and heroic legacy of the Wayne family. BF/SM

Batman #120 [2] (Dec. 1958)

Batman and Robin are on hand as Superman launches a top-secret manned lunar mission, flown by an American astronaut named Brice Rogers. During the flight, Rogers' spacecraft is irradiated by a passing comet, which later causes Rogers to become a super-powered villain called Moonman every time he is exposed to moonlight. Rogers, anguished at his transformation but unable to control it, eventually helps Superman and Batman apprehend Moonman's gang before his powers fade for good. EH/DS/CP
NOTES: The events of this story also took place on Earth-One; Rogers' Earth-One counterpart appeared next in World's Finest Comics #266 (Dec. 1980/Jan. 1981).

World's Finest #98 (Dec. 1958)

1959

Batman and Robin encounter Mr. Zero, a criminal scientist whose metabolism has been altered by an accident with the villain's own high-tech ice gun, leaving him unable to survive at temperatures above freezing. The Dynamic Duo ultimately apprehends Mr. Zero and a cloud of steam somehow reverses the effects of his ice gun, returning Zero's metabolism to normal. DW/SM/CP
NOTES: It is unclear from this story whether "Mr. Zero" is a pseudonym or if Zero is actually the villain's real name. On Earth-One, Mr. Zero, was never restored to normal; he next appeared in Detective Comics #373 (March 1968), changing his name to Mr. Freeze.

Batman #121 [3] (Feb. 1959)

Ex-convict "Slugsy" Kyle, the first criminal Batman ever arrested, becomes the costumed villain called the Clock and sets out to murder the Caped Crusader. BF/SM/CP

Detective #265 (March 1959)

Following a trip through time with Batman to 17th-century Venice, Italy, Robin is accidentally sent three days into the future, where he spots a newspaper headline announcing Batman's death. Robin returns to his own time frightened about Batman's future, but ultimately discovers that the newspaper story was an error, not a portent of doom. BF/SM/CP

Batman #125 [2] (Aug. 1959)

Batman and Robin capture the three Brady Brothers, who have stolen a set of diamonds intended to commemorate Alaska's becoming the 49th U.S. state. ?/SM/CP
NOTES: Alaska, previously a U.S. territory, became a state on Jan. 3, 1959; that date is what almost certainly places this story in Earth-Two continuity.

Batman #126 [1] (Sept. 1959)

The Sixties

Crooked fortune teller Swami Ymar becomes a costumed supervillain called the Spinner. BF/SM/CP
NOTES: This story's place in Earth-Two continuity was established by Brave and the Bold #182 (Jan. 1982).

Batman #129 [1] (Feb. 1960)

After his death, the body of Charles Grayson — an old friend of Robotman's and a distant cousin of Dick Grayson's — is cryogenically preserved in the hope that it may one day house Robotman's human brain and allow the cyborg hero to begin a new life. Unfortunately, Robotman is accidentally left in suspended animation and does not learn of his friend's bequest until 20 years later. BR/AS/VC

(DC Comics Presents #31, March 1981)

June 14, 1961: Barry Allen, the Flash of Earth-One, accidentally crosses over to Keystone City on Earth-Two, where he meets Jay Garrick, the Earth-Two Flash. They learn that many of the adventures of Earth-Two's Golden Age heroes were published as fictional comic book stories on Earth-One, apparently because the writers received psychic impressions from Earth-Two. GF/CI/JG
NOTES: The date is established by a current newspaper Barry Allen picks up in Keystone City. This story introduced the Multiverse and the concept of the multiple Earths, although Earth-One, home of Barry Allen, and Earth-Two, the JSA's world, were not actually named until Justice League of America #21 (Aug. 1963). Barry Allen, the second Flash, generally considered the first major Silver Age superhero, first appeared in Showcase Comics #4 (Oct. 1956), created by editor Julius Schwartz, writer Robert Kanigher, and artist Carmine Infantino. Dialogue in this story indicates that Jay Garrick retired as the Flash in 1949, when Flash Comics was discontinued, but subsequent stories established that the Golden Age Flash remained active with the JSA until 1951, a point noted in Jay's next appearance in Flash #129 (June 1962).

Flash #123 (Sept. 1961)

Six former JSA members — the Atom, Dr. Mid-Nite, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Johnny Thunder, and Wonder Woman — are captured by Vandal Savage, but are freed through the combined efforts of the Flash and his Earth-One counterpart. The Earth-Two heroes decide to revive the Justice Society. GF/CI/JG
NOTES: This story, the third teaming of Jay Garrick and Barry Allen, was the Silver Age debut of the Justice Society of America, the first appearance (discounting a flashback in Flash #129) of the Golden Age Atom, Dr. Mid-Nite, Green Lantern, and Hawkman since All-Star Comics #57 (Feb./March 1951) and Johnny Thunder's first appearance since All-Star Comics #39 (Feb./March 1948). Vandal Savage, a caveman granted immortality by the radiation from a mysterious meteorite 50,000 years ago, first appeared in Green Lantern #10 (Winter 1943), drawn by Martin Nodell and written by noted science fiction author Alfred Bester.

Flash #137 (June 1963)

The JSA holds its first annual meeting with the Justice League of America of Barry Allen's Earth, which the assembled heroes dub Earth-One; the JSA's Earth is dubbed Earth-Two. The JSA and JLA join forces to battle a group of villains from both Earths. GF/MS/BSa
NOTES: This was the first meeting between the JSA and JLA and the first time their respective Earths were named.

Justice League of America #21–22 (Aug.–Sept. 1963)

Bruce Wayne reveals to his young daughter that he is secretly Batman. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: These events are depicted in flashback, based on an entry in Helena Wayne's diary. While no precise date is provided, the artwork of the flashback suggests that Helena is perhaps 7 or 8 years old, which would place this event in the early to mid-1960s.

(Wonder Woman #286, Dec. 1981)

Imaginary Story: After the Earth-One Batman defeats a villain called The Bouncer, the story's author, Gardner Fox, imagines an alternate ending in which Batman is instead killed by the villain. In that version of the story, Earth-Two's Batman later moves to Earth-One to take his counterpart's place as guardian of Dick Grayson. GF/CI/JG
NOTES: Although the text explicitly describes this story's alternative ending as imaginary, this was nevertheless the first Silver Age appearance of the Golden Age Batman and of the Earth-Two Alfred, who joins his master on Earth-One.

Detective #347 (Jan. 1966)

Robin formally joins the JSA and has his first meeting with Earth-One's Justice League. He tells his JSA colleagues that Batman is semi-retired, although he "still goes out on special cases." GF/MS/SG
NOTES: This was the first Silver Age appearance of the Golden Age Robin and the introduction of his singularly ugly new costume, which is similar to Batman's (including a gray bodysuit; a yellow utility belt with cylindrical capsules; and blue boots, trunks, and gauntlets) save for the chest emblem, high-collared yellow cape, and domino mask. (Robin is also depicted as having his own Bat-Jet, similar to the Batplane, but emblazoned with "R" emblems with yellow bat-wings.) The costume's chest emblem is similar to the one that previously appeared on a special padded costume Robin used in Detective Comics #165 (Nov. 1950), although the design details differ from issue to issue and even panel to panel. Exactly when Robin adopted this costume is unclear, as are many basic details of his Earth-Two life and career. It was never established when he graduated from high school, where he went to college (although at some point he clearly went to law school), or when he left Wayne Manor.

Justice League of America #55–56 (Aug.–Sept. 1967)

While Batman is away from Gotham to receive an award, Earth-Two's Green Lantern, Alan Scott, defeats a burglar attempting to rob Wayne Manor, which Alan had agreed to watch over in Bruce Wayne's absence. Afterward, Alan returns home to find his own apartment has been burgled while he was out. MF/GK/SG NOTES: This may be the earliest story to explicitly acknowledge that Bruce Wayne and Alan Scott live in the same city, although many of Alan's earlier Golden Age and Silver Age adventures were set in Gotham. Alan affirms that Dick Grayson "moved out when he grew up," although there's no indication of when that was, or where Alfred may be during Bruce's absence.

Green Lantern v.2 #61 (June 1968)

The Seventies

Batman attends a JSA meeting while the Justice Society confronts the threat of Creator2, although the Caped Crusader does not take part in the JSA's subsequent adventure with Earth-One's Justice League of America. DON/DD/JG
NOTES: This was the first actual Silver Age/Bronze Age appearance of the Golden Age Batman, discounting flashbacks and imaginary stories.

Justice League of America #82 (Aug. 1970)

During a joint mission of the JLA and JSA, Robin meets his teenage Earth-One counterpart, who briefly dons a new costume designed by Earth-Two's Neal Adams. Meanwhile, Earth-Two's Robin expresses frustration at his treatment by the other Justice Society members — particularly after Hawkman mistakenly assumes that Robin is only filling in for Batman, having apparently forgotten that Robin is a now a full-fledged JSA member. MF/DD/JG
NOTES: The costume worn by the Earth-One Robin in this story is the same one the Earth-Two Robin adopted in All-Star Comics #58 (Jan./Feb. 1976). This story implies that the Earth-Two Robin is a good deal younger than he would actually have been by this time; by 1971, he was in his early 40s! The first part of this story, Justice League of America #91, reveals that Earth-Two's Clark Kent is now the editor of the Metropolis Daily Star. Justice League of America #92 contains the first Silver Age/Bronze Age appearance of the Earth-Two Batcave.

Justice League of America #91–92 (Aug.–Sept. 1971)

Robin joins the combined efforts of the JSA and Earth-One's JLA to rescue the time-lost members of the Seven Soldiers of Victory and protect Earth-Two from the Soldiers' old adversary, the Iron Hand. MF/DD/DG
NOTES: The Seven Soldiers of Victory, whose members included Green Arrow and Speedy, the Crimson Avenger, his sidekick Wing, the Star-Spangled Kid and Stripsey, the Shining Knight, and the Vigilante, first joined forces in Leading Comics #1 (Winter 1941), by Mort Weisinger and George Papp. The Iron Hand (originally called simply the Hand) was the group's adversary in that first published story.

Justice League of America #100–102 (Aug.–Oct. 1972)

Robin and other members of the Justice Society are accidentally slain by Earth-One's Justice League during a battle with the renegade Cary Bates of Earth-Prime. The deceased JSA members are later resurrected through the intervention of the Spectre, who appeals to the Voice for the souls of his comrades, returns Bates to his native world, and strips everyone involved of their memories of what has transpired. ESM/CB/DD
NOTES: For the uninitiated, the Earth-Prime Cary Bates, Elliot S! Maggin, and Julius Schwartz were the co-writers and editor of this tongue-in-cheek story. The parallel world of Earth-Prime, originally intended to represent the real world, first appeared in Flash #179 (May 1968). This story was the last Bronze Age appearance of the Earth-Two Robin's yellow-and-gray costume, although it resurfaced in Convergence: Detective Comics #1–2 (June–July 2015), by Len Wein, Denys Cowan, and Bill Sienkiewicz (see below).

Justice League of America #123–124 (Oct.–Nov. 1975)

1976

Dick Grayson is appointed an ambassador to the United Nations, initially posted in South Africa. As Robin, he adopts the new red, yellow, and green costume previously designed by artist Neal Adams for Earth-One's Robin. Joined by Power Girl and the Star-Spangled Kid, Robin helps the JSA battle Brain Wave and Per Degaton. Power Girl proposed that she, Robin, and the Star-Spangled Kid a new JSA "strike force" called the Super Squad. GC/RE/WW
NOTES: Power Girl's remarks at the end of All-Star Comics #58 incorrectly suggest that Robin is not a full member of the JSA. Although the Star-Spangled Kid and Power Girl herself were not formally admitted to the Justice Society until All-Star Comics #64 (Jan./Feb. 1977), Robin had been a JSA member since Justice League of America #55 (Aug. 1967). (In fairness to Power Girl, Hawkman made the same mistake in Justice League of America #91 (Aug. 1971)!) According to a narrative caption in All-Star Comics #66 (May/June 1977), Earth-Two's South Africa is under black rule, but dialogue in All-Star Comics #58 (Jan./Feb. 1976) suggests that apartheid is still being practiced, presumably toward the nation's minority white population, the reverse of the situation on Earth-Prime at that time.

All-Star Comics #58-59 (Jan.-April 1976)

Batman briefly emerges from retirement to attend a dinner honoring Robin, the first time Robin has been publicly feted since embarking on a solo crimefighting career. The Caped Crusaders are enlisted by the god Mercury to stop the villainous King Kull. Dispatched to Earth-S, Batman and Robin join forces with Earth-One's Hawkman and Hawkgirl and Earth-S's Mr. Scarlet and Pinky to defeat a group of villains including Earth-Two's Joker. Batman's efforts are stymied by the fact that the mystical energies of an orbiting satellite have turned half his jaw to steel, although the satellite's destruction later returns him to normal. ENB/MPa/DD/FM
NOTES: This story was the first Silver Age/Bronze Age appearance of the Golden Age Joker and the only JLA/JSA adventure in which Earth-Two's Batman took an active role, although his involvement in the story is limited. (He and Robin are prominently featured on the covers of Justice League of America #136 and #137, but Batman spends much of the adventure talking like the old Dick Tracy villain Mumbles!). Mr. Scarlet and Pinky were Fawcett Comics characters, created by France E. Herron and artist Jack Kirby; they debuted in Wow Comics #1 (Dec. 1940). King Kull, another Fawcett character, first appeared in Marvel Family #67 (Jan. 1952); he was created by Otto Binder and artist Kurt Schaffenberger. The Earth-One Hawkman and Hawkgirl debuted in Brave and the Bold #34 (March 1961), by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert.

Justice League of America #135–137 (Oct.–Dec. 1976)

Late Summer 1976: Selina Kyle Wayne is blackmailed by a former henchman, "Silky" Cernak, who possesses a doctored photograph purporting to show Selina killing a policeman — something she had sworn to her husband she had never done. Donning her Catwoman costume for the first time in years, Selina is forced to aid Cernak in robbing the Gotham Civic Center. When Batman attempts to intervene, Selina is hit by a stray bullet and falls four stories. She dies in her husband's arms, begging forgiveness, while Cernak escapes. Afterward, a grief-stricken Bruce Wayne lights a symbolic funeral pyre for the Batman, vowing never to wear his costume again. Bruce's daughter Helena, unwilling to let her mother's killer escape justice, devises her own costumed identity as the Huntress and tracks down and captures Cernak. Helena decides to continue her crimefighting career, although she elects not to tell her father of her new identity. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: A narrative caption box in this story explicitly states that Selina Kyle's death occurred in the late summer of 1976. However, a similar caption in the JSA story in Adventure Comics #462 (March/April 1979) describes Selina's death as taking place "last summer," which was probably intended to imply the summer of 1977. (The JSA story in that issue was originally written for All-Star Comics #75, which would have carried a cover date of Nov./Dec. 1978.) The JSA story in Adventure Comics #463 (May/June 1979) reiterates the "last summer" timeframe and further states that Bruce and Selina died within the space of a year. Further complicating the chronology is the fact that this story makes several references to Dick Grayson being on a diplomatic assignment to Madagascar, rather than South Africa, where Dick was posted in All-Star Comics #58–66. (Since Dick's exact UN duties were never clearly defined, it is possible that the Madagascar assignment was a temporary posting that interrupted his service in Cape Town.) In any event, this story was the first chronological appearance of Helena Wayne, published more or less concurrently with All-Star Comics #69 (her first actual appearance), but taking place somewhat earlier. Paul Levitz later said the Huntress was first suggested by inker Bob Layton, who proposed an Earth-Two version of Batgirl as a way to add more female characters to the JSA.

DC Super-Stars #17 (Nov./Dec. 1977)

Bruce Wayne deduces that businessman Bill Jensen murdered his business partner and gathers enough evidence to convict Jensen of murder, although Jensen steadfastly maintains his innocence, accusing Bruce of framing him. Afterward, Bruce is appointed to replace the late Jim Gordon as Gotham's new police commissioner. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: Jensen's account of these events in Adventure Comics #461 suggests that his conviction led directly to Bruce Wayne's appointment as police commissioner, although since Jensen was obviously not an unbiased witness, it is unclear whether or not that was actually the case. The death of Jim Gordon was first mentioned in America vs. the Justice Society #1 (Jan. 1985).

(Adventure Comics #461–462, Jan.–April 1979), (America vs. the JSA #1, Jan. 1985)

Apocrypha: The Ultra-Humanite causes Superman and Batman's minds to be transferred into the bodies of Power Girl and the Huntress. Superman and Batman must locate their own bodies before Kara and Helena's minds reassert themselves. Mark Verheiden/Kevin Maguire
NOTES: While this story is explicitly described as taking place before the Crisis on Infinite Earths, its placement in Earth-Two continuity is problematic. With one or two very brief exceptions, Earth-Two's Bruce Wayne was not active as Batman after his daughter became the Huntress. Since this story was published after Infinite Crisis, it may have taken place on the new Earth-2 rather than the original.

Superman/Batman #27 (July 2006)

Bruce Wayne discovers that he has terminal cancer. He tells no one other than his daughter and asks her to keep the information to herself. RT/HW/AA

(America vs. the JSA #4, April 1985)

1977

Dr. Fate and the Flash visit Robin in Cape Town, South Africa, to enlist his help in obtaining discrete medical care for Hourman, who has been badly injured in a battle with the Injustice Society. Fate makes remarks that lead Robin to believe that several JSA members are behaving erratically. Dick subsequently sends a telegram to Bruce Wayne explaining the situation and asking for advice. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: This story establishes that Bruce Wayne has become police commissioner of Gotham City, but does not reveal the circumstances or the reasons for his retirement as Batman.

All-Star Comics #66 (May/June 1977)

Under the mystical influence of the villainous Psycho-Pirate (II), Green Lantern goes on a rampage in Gotham City, pursued doggedly by the Gotham City Police Department and its commissioner, Bruce Wayne. Sensing Bruce's unease, Dr. Fate makes an unexpected appearance in the commissioner's office, which only serves to fuel Bruce's suspicions. Unbeknownst to Fate, Bruce himself has fallen under the influence of the Psycho-Pirate. Bruce subsequently issues arrest warrants for all seven active JSA members. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: This issue implies that Bruce's mistrust of the JSA is more or less rational, sparked by Dick Grayson's worrisome telegram, Green Lantern's rampage, and Bruce's understandable frustration with Dr. Fate's cryptic grandstanding; the Psycho-Pirate's influence on Bruce was not revealed until All-Star Comics #69 (Nov./Dec. 1977). Psycho-Pirate II (Roger Hayden) debuted in Showcase Comics #55 (March 1965), by Gardner Fox and Murphy Anderson. Hayden borrowed his name and modus operandi from the original Psycho-Pirate (Charley Halstead), Hayden's former cellmate and a one-time JSA foe first seen in All-Star Comics #23 (Winter 44). Unlike Halstead, who had no superhuman powers, Hayden's Medusa Mask enabled him to magically alter the emotions of others.

All-Star Comics #67 (July/Aug. 1977)

The JSA is forced to battle an out-of-control Green Lantern. Meanwhile, Dick Grayson returns to the U.S. with the recovering Hourman and meets with Bruce Wayne to devise a plan to apprehend the rest of the Justice Society. PL/JSt/BL

All-Star Comics #68 (Sept./Oct. 1977)

Accompanied by Professor Carter Nichols, Bruce Wayne visits Per Degaton in prison and offers to help secure the villain's parole on the grounds that Degaton was unfairly persecuted by the JSA. The gleeful Degaton makes several cryptic remarks that later enable Bruce to deduce that Degaton is waiting for the return of Professor Zee's time machine in Nov. 1984, on what would have been Zee's 100th birthday. Still under the influence of the Psycho-Pirate, Bruce composes a false diary accusing the JSA of treason during World War II — including the allegation that the JSA was responsible for an act of sabotage actually committed by Degaton — in the subconscious hope that it will lead them JSA to investigate Degaton's whereabouts and thwart the villain's plans. Donning his Batman costume, Bruce delivers the diary to Carter Nichols and asks Nichols to turn it over to Clark Kent at the Daily Star in the fall of 1984 if Batman is no longer alive to do so himself. RT/RK/HB/AA
NOTES: This sequence of events is somewhat speculative, intended to reconcile the various inconsistencies between America vs. the Justice Society and the events of All-Star Comics #66–70. Chief among those is the fact that America vs. the Justice Society does not mention that Bruce Wayne was under the influence of the Psycho-Pirate during this period, something that would at least partly explain why Bruce would express his suspicions in such an outlandish way. Various other points remain unclear, such as why Bruce, already retired as Batman, would don his costume to visit Nichols (particularly since most of Bruce and Dick's previous meetings with Nichols were in their civilian identities); why Bruce did not share his concerns about Degaton with Helena Wayne, Dick Grayson, other police or government officials, or even Carter Nichols; or why Bruce apparently made no attempt to retrieve the false diary after the Psycho-Pirate's spell was broken. In the post-Crisis universe, Degaton remained in prison for several more years before being paroled. He died in a car accident in Los Angeles, but was revived by Mekanique and then perished again with the arrival of a temporal duplicate of his 1947 self, as seen in Infinity, Inc. Annual #2 (July 1988).

(America vs. the JSA #1-4, Jan.–April 1985)

Bruce Wayne attempts to arrest the active members of the JSA, resulting in a clash between the Justice Society and Gotham City police that leaves Power Girl badly injured. Bruce enlists Robin, Hourman, and various inactive members of the JSA, including Dr. Mid-Nite, Hourman, Starman, and Wonder Woman, to help apprehend the other JSAers. The divided heroes clash in a grim fight in the Batcave that is eventually halted by the intervention of Superman. Dr. Fate discovers that Bruce is under the Psycho-Pirate's thrall and magically dispels the villain's malign influence. Teary-eyed, Bruce apologizes for his actions. Nearby, the Huntress (II) watches unseen, relieved to see that her father is back to normal. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: This was the first appearance of the Huntress, whose origin was told at approximately the same time in DC Super-Stars #17 (Nov./Dec. 1977).

All-Star Comics #69 (Nov./Dec. 1977)

Most of the members of the JSA, including Bruce Wayne, are briefly reunited at JSA headquarters before going their separate ways. Later, the Star-Spangled Kid and Wildcat take on the Strike Force and have their first meeting with the new Huntress. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: Although Bruce Wayne appears to be on friendly terms with the JSA in this story, America vs. the Justice Society #3 (March 1985) indicates that he remained suspicious of them until his death.

All-Star Comics #70 (Jan./Feb. 1978)

The Huntress helps the Star-Spangled Kid and Wildcat defeat the Strike Force and reveals her true identity to the two JSAers. PL/JSt/BL

All-Star Comics #71 (March/April 1978)

Bruce Wayne begins writing a journal about his life, including an account of the events surrounding his marriage to Selina Kyle. AB/JSt/GF
NOTES: A narrative caption at the beginning of this story indicates that it takes place "two years ago" (i.e., in 1981), but other accounts agree that Earth-Two's Bruce Wayne died in 1979.

(Brave & Bold #197, April 1983)

1978

The Huntress is formally admitted to the JSA, replacing the Star-Spangled Kid on the active roster. Shortly afterward, she is confronted by her villainous namesake, the first Huntress. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: The villainous Huntress (I), originally an enemy of Wildcat, debuted in Sensation Comics #68 (Aug. 1947), drawn by Mort Meskin and possibly written by Robert Kanigher. She later married the Sportsmaster, Green Lantern's nemesis and one of the Huntress's former Injustice Society colleagues; the marriage was revealed in Brave and the Bold #62 (Oct./Nov. 1965). In the post-Crisis universe, the Huntress's real name was Paula Brooks, and she began her career as the Tigress, a teenage heroine inspired by Manhunter (Paul Kirk); her first chronological appearance was in Young All-Stars #6 (Nov. 1987). It is not clear if similar events took place on Earth-Two.

All-Star Comics #72 (May/June 1978)

The Huntress defeats the original Huntress with a little help from Green Lantern. PL/JSt/JG

All-Star Comics #73 (July/Aug. 1978)

Seeking advice on her crimefighting career, the Huntress uses the JSA's equipment to travel to Earth-One, where she meets that world's Batman and Robin. They introduce her to Earth-One's Kathy Kane (Batwoman), who in turn introduces Helena to Earth-One's Barbara Gordon (Batgirl). Together, the Huntress, Batgirl, and Batwoman battle Poison Ivy, Madame Zodiac, and Earth-One's Catwoman, the counterpart of Helena's mother. Before returning to her own world, Helena promises to keep in touch with Earth-One's Bruce Wayne, whom she calls her "Uncle Bruce." GC/BR/JA/DH/BW/VC
NOTES: The Huntress claims in this story that her father has forbidden her from starting her own costumed career, a conversation not depicted in any of her other appearances. Despite the cover date, the Huntress's use of the JSA's matter-transmitter equipment implies that she is already a member of the JSA by the time of these events, placing them after those of All-Star Comics #72–73. However, since this was her first meeting with Earth-One's Batman, these events must have taken place prior to those of Justice League of America #159 (Oct. 1978). This was Madame Zodiac's first appearance; Poison Ivy debuted in Batman #181 (June 1966), written by Robert Kanigher and drawn by Sheldon Moldoff and Joe Giella.

Batman Family #17 (April/May 1978)

At a remarkably young age, Helena Wayne graduates valedictorian from Harvard Law School, moves into an upscale penthouse apartment in the Innwood district of Gotham City, and becomes a junior partner in Cranston, Grayson and Wayne, a public interest law firm established by Dick Grayson and Arthur Cranston. As the Huntress, Helena investigates a series of deadly arson fires masterminded by Councilman Franklin Gresham in an effort to bring federal funds to his poor South Gotham district. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: The text also notes that Helena was editor of the prestigious Harvard Law Review during her time at Harvard. This and subsequent Huntress stories indicate that Dick Grayson no longer plays an active role in Cranston, Grayson and Wayne because he spends most of his time abroad in diplomatic service.

Batman Family #18–20 (June–Nov. 1978)

The Huntress and the rest of the JSA pursue but fail to capture the Secret Society of Super-Villains after the villains, led by the Wizard, attempt to attack several individual JSA members. GC/DD/FM
NOTES: The JSA's appearance in this issue is actually a flashback to a story written for issue #16 of Secret Society of Super-Villains (which would have had a cover date of Aug./Sept. 1978). That series was canceled with issue #15, so the unused story, written by Bob Rozakis with art by Dick Ayers and Mike Vosburg, only saw publication in Cancelled Comics Cavalcade #2, the second of two mimeographed anthologies created for copyright registration purposes. The Secret Society of Super-Villains was created by Gerry Conway and Pablo Marcos and debuted in the first issue of their short-lived series, cover-dated May 1976.

(Justice League of America #166, May 1979)

Helena Wayne befriends Power Girl and helps her develop her secret identity as Karen Starr. The Huntress and Robin help the JSA defeat the Master Summoner. PL/JSt/JG
NOTES: Power Girl established her secret identity in Showcase Comics #97–99 (Jan.–March 1978), also written by Paul Levitz and drawn by Joe Staton. This was the final issue of the revived All-Star Comics, although the next issue box advertises a story that is clearly the one later published in Adventure Comics #461–462.

All-Star Comics #74 (Sept./Oct. 1978)

July 15, 1978: The Huntress visits Earth-One with the JSA for their annual meeting with the JLA, giving her the opportunity to catch up with Earth-One's Batman (who muses to himself that he "always wanted a daughter"). The Huntress is among the group of heroes from both worlds drawn into battle with adventurers from other eras of history, including the Black Pirate, Hans Von Hammer, Jonah Hex, Miss Liberty, and the Viking Prince, all of whom are being controlled by a sentient computer built by the JLA's longtime adversary, the Lord of Time. GC/DD/FM
NOTES: The Black Pirate first appeared in Action Comics #23 (April 1940), World War I pilot Hans Von Hammer (the Enemy Ace) in Our Army at War #151 (Feb. 1965), Western bounty hunter Jonah Hex in All-Star Western #10 (Feb./March 1972), revolutionary war heroine Miss Liberty in Tomahawk #81 (Aug. 1962), and the Viking Prince in Brave and the Bold #1 (Sept. 1955). The Lord of Time was first seen in Justice League of America #10 (March 1962).

Justice League of America #159–160 (Oct.–Nov. 1978)

1979

The Huntress has a talk with Robin, who tells her that he was not fooled by her disguise, but notes that Bruce Wayne still does not know of Helena's secret identity; Robin promises not to tell him. Meanwhile, Bill Jensen, whom Bruce had helped to convict of murder months earlier, escapes from prison after finding himself unexpectedly imbued with formidable mystic powers. Jensen climbs one of Gotham's Trade Towers and threatens to use his newfound power to level half the city until he has his revenge on Bruce, whom Jensen accuses of framing him. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: This story continues in the next issue of Adventure Comics. It appears that both parts were originally intended to run as a single book-length story in issue #75 of the recently canceled All-Star Comics. As mentioned above, a narrative caption in this story says that Selina Kyle died "last summer," even though DC Super-Stars #17 (Nov./Dec. 1977) previously described her death as occurring in late summer 1976. The final word on the subject came from Last Days of the JSA Special (1986), which states that Batman died "in 1979 — several years after the death of his late wife."

Adventure #461 (Jan./Feb. 1979)

Bruce Wayne becomes Batman one last time to confront Bill Jensen, who has already proven a match for even Green Lantern and Dr. Fate During the ensuing battle, one of Jensen's energy blasts rips away part of Batman's cowl. Realizing that Batman is Bruce Wayne, Jensen unleashes all of his remaining power in one final burst, killing them both. Afterward, Batman, his secret identity now publicly revealed, is buried next to the graves of his wife and parents. His funeral is attended by Helena Wayne, Dick Grayson, Alfred Beagle, and the Justice Society. At the funeral, a grieving Helena Wayne persuades Dick Grayson not to take up Batman's mantle, preferring to let her father and his legacy rest in peace. PL/JSt/BL

Adventure #462 (March/April 1979)

The Justice Society learns that Bill Jensen gained his mysterious powers from sorcerer Frederic Vaux, a servant of Chaos who intends to kill all of Earth's superheroes and remove even the memory of their existence from the minds of humanity. Vaux's efforts are stymied by Dr. Fate and Vaux himself is ultimately killed by his unseen masters as punishment for his failure. Afterward, Fate alters Vaux's spell so that instead of wiping Batman from human memory (as Vaux had intended), the enchantment causes everyone who did not previously know Batman's secret identity to believe Bruce Wayne and Batman were separate people who died at the same time and were buried in separate graves. In the process, Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne's secret identities are restored. PL/JSt/BL
NOTES: As mentioned earlier, dialogue in this story states that Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle both died within a single year, which is not consistent with either the date provided in DC Super-Stars #17 (Nov./Dec. 1977) or subsequent accounts of Batman's death.

Adventure #463 (May/June 1979)

Some time after Bruce Wayne's death, Alfred resumes his theatrical career, becoming the manager of the New Stratford Repertory Company in a small town north of Gotham. PL/JSt/JO

(Wonder Woman #294, Aug. 1982)

Dick Grayson spends a night on the town with Helena Wayne and Karen Starr (Power Girl) prior to returning to diplomatic service. Meanwhile, Wildcat defeats a group of street criminals with the help of a teenage boy named Charlie Bullock. Afterward, Wildcat reveals his secret identity to the boy and decides to reopen Grant's Gym with Charlie as its first member. PL/JSt/BL

Adventure #464 (July/Aug. 1979)

The Huntress and Power Girl join their JSA comrades in the search for a capsule of poison gas being used to blackmail Gotham City. PL/JSt/BL

Adventure #465 (Sept./Oct. 1979)

The Huntress joins the JSA for their annual meeting with Earth-One's Justice League, where she informs Earth-One's Batman of his counterpart's death. The reunion becomes a murder investigation after JSA member Mr. Terrific is killed on board the JLA satellite. The Huntress, who leads the investigation in partnership with the Earth-One Batman, is nearly killed in an explosion after discovering the killer's identity, but she is healed through the mystical powers of Dr. Fate. The murderer is revealed to be Mr. Terrific's old foe, the Spirit King, who had temporarily possessed the body of Jay Garrick. GC/DD/FM
NOTES: According to the text, this story takes place six months after the death of Earth-Two's Batman. Mr. Terrific, created by Chuck Reizenstein and Hal Sharp, first appeared in Sensation Comics #1 (Jan. 1942). He was involved in only a single Golden Age JSA case, All-Star Comics #24 (Spring 1945). This was the first appearance of the Spirit King.

Justice League of America #171–172 (Oct.–Nov. 1979)

Following the funeral of Mr. Terrific, the Huntress explains to Power Girl why the JSA was forced into retirement back in 1951. PL/JSt/BL

Adventure #466 (Nov./Dec. 1979)

1980

In the wake of Bruce Wayne's death, Police Chief O'Hara becomes Gotham City's new police commissioner. PL/JSt/SM
NOTES: It is unclear exactly when O'Hara was appointed police commissioner; the JSA story in Adventure Comics #465 (Sept./Oct. 1979) still describes him as the police chief. The Clancy O'Hara character was originally created for the 1966 Batman television series, where he was portrayed by actor Stafford Repp; O'Hara's first comic book appearance (on Earth-One) was in World's Finest Comics #159 (Aug. 1966). The Earth-Two O'Hara first appeared in All-Star Comics #67 (July/Aug. 1977). (His first name was never actually revealed, but it was presumably also Clancy.) A post-Crisis version of O'Hara was introduced in Batman: Dark Victory #1 (Dec. 1999), but was killed shortly thereafter; he never became police chief.

(Wonder Woman #281, July 1981)

With her father dead and Robin spending most of his time abroad, the Huntress becomes Gotham City's preeminent costumed hero. As Helena Wayne, she meets new Gotham D.A. Harry Sims while as the Huntress, she takes on Solomon Grundy. PL/JSt/SM
NOTES: The Huntress began starring in her own eight-page back-up strip in Wonder Woman #271. The monstrous Solomon Grundy, a regular foe of both the Golden Age Green Lantern and the JSA, debuted in All-American Comics #61 (Oct. 1943), by artist Paul Reinman and writer Alfred Bester.

Wonder Woman #271–273 (Sept.–Nov. 1980)

En route to the annual reunion of the JSA and Earth-One's JLA, the Huntress and several of her comrades are transported to New Genesis, where they aid the New Gods in a battle against Darkseid, the lord of Apokolips. The Huntress subsequently helps Earth-One's Batman, Mister Miracle, and Big Barda infiltrate the citadel of Darkseid himself. GC/DD/GP/FM
NOTES: Robin makes a brief appearance in the first part of this adventure, but is not one of the JSAers transported to New Genesis and does not take part in the ensuing adventure. Darkseid, Mister Miracle, Big Barda, and the rest of the New Gods were created by Jack Kirby. Darkseid first appeared in Jimmy Olsen #134 (Dec. 1970), Mister Miracle in Mister Miracle #1 (April 1971), Barda in Mister Miracle #4 (Oct. 1971), and Orion, Highfather, and Apokolips in New Gods #1 (March 1971). This storyline continues plotlines from Adventure Comics #459–460 (Sept.–Dec. 1978), also written by Gerry Conway. The first part of this story was penciled by Dick Dillin, who died shortly after completing #183; the remainder of the story was penciled by George Pérez.

Justice League of America #183–185 (Oct.–Dec. 1980)

The Huntress and Power Girl confront Harry Sims about his new campaign against vigilante heroes in Gotham. They ultimately discover that Harry is under the control of the Thinker and thwart the villain's plan to cause chaos in Gotham. Unfortunately, careless remarks made by Power Girl lead Harry Sims to realize that the Huntress is secretly Helena Wayne. PL/JSt/SM
NOTES: The Thinker (Clifford Sims), an opponent of the Golden Age Flash and the Justice Society, first appeared in All-Flash Comics #12 (Fall 1943). He was created by Gardner Fox and artist E. E. Hibbard.

Wonder Woman #274–276 (Dec. 1980–Feb. 1981)

1981

Robotman recovers from 20 years in suspended animation and discovers that he has inherited the cryogenically preserved body of his old friend Charles Grayson (Dick Grayson's distant cousin). Robotman's human brain is transplanted into Grayson's revived body, allowing him to live out the rest of his life as a man, not a machine. BR/AS/VC

DC Comics Presents #31 (March 1981)

Helena Wayne and Harry Sims have an awkward discussion about Harry's knowledge of Helena's secret identity and their budding romantic interest in one another. Their conversation is interrupted by news of a prison riot at Gotham's Gull Island Penitentiary, led by Lionmane, a brutal former henchman of the Catwoman. Meanwhile, the Joker escapes from prison and nearly kills Harry with deadly laughing gas. PL/JSt/SM

Wonder Woman #277–280 (March–June 1981)

The Huntress pursues the Joker, eventually enlisting the aid of Robin, who masquerades as Batman in order to draw the Clown Prince of Crime out of hiding. PL/JSt/SM

Wonder Woman #281–283 (July–Sept. 1981)

The Huntress and Robin join forces again to clear their law partner, Arthur Cranston, of a bogus fraud charge. Later, they save Harry Sims, still in the hospital recovering from the Joker's attack, from a vengeful escaped convict. PL/JSt/SM NOTE: This story affirms (if somewhat awkwardly) that there is no incestuous attraction between Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson, in sharp contrast to the post-52 versions of the characters seen in Justice Society of America v.3 Annual #1 (July 2008).

Wonder Woman #284–285 (Oct.–Nov. 1981)

Helena Wayne and Karen Starr (Power Girl) go to Metropolis to visit Clark Kent and Lois Lane, leaving Robin to watch over Gotham City in their absence. AB/JA

(Brave & Bold #182, Jan. 1982)

After decades of near-paralysis following his last battle with Batman and Robin, Professor Hugo Strange regains partial mobility thanks to a derivative of his old monster serum. Having uncovered the secret of Batman's true identity, Strange begins a campaign of terror in Gotham City using weapons stolen from the Batcave and Starman's captured Cosmic Rod. Strange is ultimately defeated by Robin, Batwoman, and Earth-One's Batman and chooses to destroy himself with Starman's Cosmic Rod rather than face capture and prison. AB/JA
NOTES: Despite the cover date, these events take place before the events of Justice League of America #195 and World's Finest Comics #271; the Earth-One Batman does not immediately recognize Robin's new costume, which Robin wore in both of the latter adventures. This story notes that Earth-Two's Batwoman eventually married and started a family, but the names of her husband and children are not revealed.

Brave & Bold #182 (Jan. 1982)

Robin and Superman help the Earth-One Superman and Batman defeat the Atom Man, a Nazi supervillain whom the Earth-Two Superman vanquished in the fall of 1945. RT/RiB/FM
NOTES: The villain's name is spelled "Atoman" in this story, although his original appearance on the Adventures of Superman radio series in 1945 suggested that "Atom Man" was two words. This story recaps the relationship between Batman and Superman on both Earth-One and Earth-Two and indicates that at least some of the events of the 1940s Superman radio series are part of Earth-Two continuity.

World's Finest #271 (Sept. 1981)

Robin and the Huntress briefly attend the JSA's annual meeting with the JLA to catch up with Earth-One's Batman. Neither Robin nor the Huntress plays an active role in the JLA and JSA's subsequent battle with the Ultra-Humanite and Secret Society of Super-Villains. GC/GP/JBe

Justice League of America #195 (Oct. 1981)

The Huntress battles a heavily armed underworld enforcer called Karnage. PL/JSt/SM

Wonder Woman #286–287 (Dec. 1981–Jan. 1982)

Late Dec. 1981: The Huntress travels to Earth-One to spend Christmas with her father's Earth-One counterpart and helps him investigate disturbing evidence suggesting that his late father had ties to a notorious gangster. MWB/JA

Brave & Bold #184 (March 1982)

1982

The Huntress joins Power Girl and other heroines from Earth-One and Earth-X to stop the Adjudicator, who has unleashed the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse on Earth-One, Earth-Two, Earth-X, and Earth-I, an alternate Earth on which aging and death have been conquered by advanced science. PL/RT/GC/FM
NOTES: The events of this story probably take place before those depicted in the Huntress back-up strip in Wonder Woman #289–290.

Wonder Woman #291–293 (May–July 1982)

The Huntress is attacked by the Crimelord, a vicious costumed criminal who has learned her secret identity and taken Harry Sims and Alfred Beagle hostage. The Crimelord, who is ultimately unasked as Mr. Stenville, the same mobster the Huntress previously terrorized with the help of Robin, accidentally falls to his death during his final skirmish with the Huntress, but she is still left with the challenge of finding and rescuing her friends. PL/JSt/BP
NOTES: Curiously, Stenville's first name was never revealed. There was no Huntress back-up strip in Wonder Woman #288, displaced by a longer-than-normal main feature.

Wonder Woman #289–290 (March–April 1982)

The Huntress rescues Alfred Beagle and Harry Sims from the Crimelord's henchmen. Alfred has a brush with death after being poisoned with a time-release capsule, but the Huntress is able to concoct an antidote in time to save him. PL/JSt/JO
NOTES: The events of these issues immediately follow those of the Huntress strip in Wonder Woman #290 (April 1982). There was no separate Huntress strip in issues #291–293.

Wonder Woman #294–295 (Aug.–Sept. 1982)

Commissioner O'Hara appoints Helena Wayne as the liaison between the police department and the district attorney's office, working with Harry Sims. As the Huntress, Helena comes to the rescue of Charlie Bullock — now an attorney with Cranston, Grayson and Wayne — who has adopted a Batman-inspired identity as Blackwing to break up a protection racket run by the villainous Boa. PL/JC/JSt/DH/JO (#296)/Sal Trapani (#297)/FM (#298–299)
NOTES: Like Helena Wayne, Charlie Bullock was apparently a legal prodigy: His first appearance in Adventure Comics #464 (July/Aug. 1979), published only three years earlier, depicted him as a boy of high school age. The Huntress feature in Wonder Woman #296 was plotted by Paul Levitz, but the script was written by Joey Cavalieri, who took over as sole writer of the Huntress strip with #297 and wrote all the subsequent Huntress backup features in Wonder Woman.

Wonder Woman #296–299 (Oct. 1982–Jan. 1983)

Oct. 2, 1982: The Huntress attends the annual JLA/JSA reunion and joins her JSA comrades in a time- and dimension-spanning mission to stop Per Degaton from conquering Earth-Two in 1942 with the help of Earth-Three's Crime Syndicate of America and nuclear weapons stolen from Earth-Prime in 1962. Along the way, the Huntress confronts and vanquishes Owlman, her father's evil Earth-Three counterpart. The assembled heroes ultimately defeat Degaton and his allies, restoring the histories of Earth-One, Earth-Two, and Earth-Prime to their rightful course and causing everyone involved to lose their memories of what has transpired. GC/RT/JO/DH
NOTES: Despite being labeled "Book Two," the events of All-Star Squadron #14 actually take place before those of Justice League of America #207, which is labeled "Book One." Owlman, Batman's villainous Earth-Three counterpart, was created by writer Gardner Fox, editor Julius Schwartz, and artist Mike Sekowsky and first appeared, along with the rest of the Crime Syndicate, in Justice League of America #29 (Aug. 1964). Nothing about the Owlman's pre-Crisis background or origins was ever revealed, although he had a "super brain" that apparently gave him hypnotic powers. Owlman's post-Crisis counterpart, introduced in the JLA: Earth 2 graphic novel (2000), was Thomas Wayne, Jr., the older brother of the antimatter universe's murdered Bruce Wayne. That version of Owlman was apparently inspired by the Thomas Wayne character introduced in World's Finest Comics #223 (May/June 1974).

Justice League of America #207–209, All-Star Squadron #14–15 (Oct.–Dec. 1982)

1983

Jan. 1983: Public sentiment in Gotham turns against the Huntress after the apparent deaths of several small-time crooks she has apprehended, including the Mechanic and Pat Pending. In fact, both criminals have been given a death-simulating drug by the villainous Undertaker, enabling them to escape arrest while painting the Huntress in a bad light. TV reporter Nedra Borrower jumps on the opportunity, calling the Huntress a public menace. JC/DH/LM (#301) / JC/MDC/TDZ (#302–303) / JC/MDC/PM (#304)
NOTES: There was no Huntress strip in Wonder Woman #300 (Feb. 1983), an oversize anniversary issue.

Wonder Woman #301–304 (Feb.–June 1983)

The Undertaker's allies, Dr. Amos Tarr and Professor Fether, abduct the Huntress and take her to Arkham Asylum, which the villains have commandeered for their own purposes. Despite being injected with a potent hallucinogenic drug that induces troubling visions of her parents the Huntress manages to escape with the aid of undercover policeman Gary Minelli.
NOTES: The names Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether were clearly inspired by the title characters of Edgar Allan Poe's 1850 short story "The System of Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether." Tarr's first appearance was in the Huntress story in Wonder Woman #301 (March 1983), Fether's in #304 (June 1983). Curiously, none of Batman's old foes are seen in Arkham in this storyline, although Brave and the Bold #200, published contemporaneously, shows that the Joker is again an inmate there. JC/MH/Rick Bryant (#305–306) / Frank Giacoia (#307)

Wonder Woman #305–307 (July–Sept. 1983)

April 24, 1983: At Arkham, Nicholas Lucian, alias Brimstone, regains consciousness after a 28-year coma only to learn that his body has atrophied from years of disuse and Batman is dead, denying Lucian his revenge. Although Lucian is physically almost helpless, he discovers that he can exert mental control over his Earth-One counterpart, a law-abiding citizen of whose existence Lucian has long been dimly aware. Lucian forces his counterpart to carry out a campaign of terror directed at Earth-One's Batman, but the Earth-One Lucian eventually breaks free of Lucian's control, causing psychic feedback that leaves Lucian conscious but completely paralyzed. MWB/DG
NOTES: Lucian is informed of Batman's death by the Joker, also an inmate of Arkham and now looking considerably older and more decrepit than in his previous appearances. This was the Earth-Two Joker's final pre-Crisis appearance. Arkham is called the Arkham Institute in this story; in the contemporaneous Huntress story in Wonder Woman, it is alternately described as the Arkham Sanitarium and the Arkham Home for the Criminally Insane.

Brave & Bold #200 (July 1983)

The Huntress investigates a vicious child-selling racket run by the grotesque Earthworm. Meanwhile, Helena Wayne's relationship with Harry Sims falls apart while reporter Nedra Borrower and politician Terry Marsh stir up public sentiment against vigilantism, culminating in a violent anti-Huntress march. Despite these obstacles, the Huntress breaks up the Earthworm's operation, although the villain himself manages to escape. JC/MH/Frank Giacoia (#308) / JC/TB/RR (#309–311) / JC/DSp (#312) / JC/TB/GM (#313)
NOTES: A post-Crisis version of the Earthworm appeared in Guy Gardner: Warrior #32–35 in 1995.

Wonder Woman #308–313 (Oct. 1983–March 1984)

Still vilified by public opinion, the Huntress defeats the Sea Lion, a one-armed, one-legged villain who plans to steal a scientific project intended to enable humans to regrow lost limbs. Meanwhile, Gary Minelli is assigned to tail the Huntress, although he believes he may be falling for her. JC/MB/GM

Wonder Woman #314–316 (April–June 1984)

The Huntress and the rest of the JSA join Earth-One's Justice League to battle a group of villains from both Earths led by the evil Johnny Thunder of Earth-One, who has taken control of his Earth-Two counterpart's Thunderbolt. RT/GC/CP/RoT
NOTES: Earth-One's Johnny Thunder first appeared in Justice League of America #37 (Aug. 1965), by Gardner Fox and Mike Sekowsky.

Justice League of America #219–220 (Oct.–Nov. 1983)

Dec. 24, 1983: A group of young heroes — all of them the children or protégés of older JSAers — apply for JSA membership, but are summarily rejected. In protest, the Huntress, Power Girl, and the Star-Spangled Kid leave the JSA to join the neophyte heroes, whom the Star-Spangled Kid recruits for a new group called Infinity, Incorporated. Meanwhile, Superman, under the mental influence of the Ultra-Humanite, lures the Atom, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Robin, and Wonder Woman to a Colorado cave, where the Man of Tomorrow drowns his comrades in the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM
NOTES: The Stream of Ruthlessness was first seen in All-Star Comics #36 (Aug./Sept. 1947). Infinity, Inc. first appeared in All-Star Squadron #25 (Sept. 1983), although from the Infinitors' perspective, those events took place several days after this story; this was the group's first chronological appearance and origin.

Infinity, Inc. #1–3 (March–May 1984)

Dec. 25, 1983: The Infinitors are called to Colorado to identify the bodies of the JSA, all of whom are apparently dead following their dip in the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM

Infinity, Inc. #4 (June 1984)

The seemingly dead JSA members regain consciousness, but their immersion in the Stream of Ruthlessness has brought out their most negative traits, making them selfish, power-hungry, and vicious. In Gotham, the Huntress stops Robin from murdering Boss Zucco (the man who killed John and Mary Grayson back in 1940), who is now an invalid confined to the prison hospital with little memory of his criminal career. The Huntress imprisons Robin in the Batcave and enlists Alfred to watch over Dick until a cure can be found for the effects of the Koehaha. RT/JO/MM

Infinity, Inc. #5–9 (July–Nov. 1984)

Thanks to the unexpected sacrifice of the JSA's old enemy, the Brain Wave, the Ultra-Humanite is defeated and the JSA is freed from the effects of the Stream of Ruthlessness. RT/JO/MM/TDZ

Infinity, Inc. #10 (Dec. 1984)

1984

At an Infinity, Inc. press conference in Los Angeles, the Huntress reveals to the world that she is Batman's daughter. She and Power Girl leave the group to return to the JSA. RT/JO/MM/TDZ
NOTES: This story's events precede those of America vs. the Justice Society #1, published contemporaneously.

Infinity, Inc. #12 (Jan. 1985)

July 1984: Helena Wayne travels to Los Angeles to investigate the murder of her college friend Myra Liebe. As the Huntress, Helena confronts the sword-wielding Nightingale, who is attempting to prevent the sale of a statue of a Japanese samurai. JC/MB/GM (#317) / JC/MB/SW (#318) / JC/SW (#319)
NOTES: The date is established by an entry in Myra's diary. These events take place after those of Infinity, Inc. #12.

Wonder Woman #317–319 (July–Sept. 1984)

Tormented by persistent feelings of being watched and troubling nightmares of becoming a criminal like her mother, the Huntress seeks therapy with Dr. June Moorman, unaware that the doctor is really an escaped accomplice of Dr. Tarr and Professor Fether who assumes the Huntress has discovered her new identity. After fending off an unexpected attack by Moorman, the Huntress learns that policeman Gary Minelli has been surreptitiously following her, destroying their budding relationship. Unbeknownst to Helena, Minelli is not the only one observing her: In orbit high above, the Monitor and his assistant Lyla watch unseen. JC/SW (#320) / JC/RW/RM (#321)
NOTES: The mysterious Monitor, subsequently to become a major part of the Crisis on Infinite Earths, first appeared in New Teen Titans #21 (July 1982), while his assistant Lyla (later known as Harbinger) was first seen in New Teen Titans Annual #2 (July 1983). This was the final Huntress back-up feature. The letter column of Wonder Woman #321 announces an upcoming four-issue Huntress mini-series, to be written by Joey Cavalieri with art by Eduardo Barreto, but, due to the effects of the Crisis, that series was never published.

Wonder Woman #320–321 (Oct.–Nov. 1984)

Nov. 25–26, 1984: Professor Carter Nichols delivers Batman's diary to Clark Kent at the Metropolis Daily Star. The diary, the authenticity of which Clark immediately confirms, accuses the JSA of having been agents of Nazi Germany during the second World War. The Justice Society — with the exception of the younger members, who were not part of the JSA in the 1940s — is arrested on charges of treason, accused both of swearing allegiance to Adolf Hitler and of sabotaging the experimental "bomb defense formula" developed shortly before America's entry into the war. A special joint Congressional committee is organized to investigate the charges in a series of dramatic public hearings. Helena Wayne, prepared to defend her comrades even if it means proving that her father was mentally unsound at the end of his life, signs on to defend the JSA. Dick Grayson, unwilling to see his mentor's reputation tarnished, reluctantly joins the prosecution, led by Senator William Hopkins and secretly bankrolled by Charles O'Fallon, the son of the man who drove the JSA to retire back in 1951. Dick is horrified to discover that O'Fallon's key witness is the JSA's old nemesis, the Wizard. RT/RK/AA
NOTES: The bomb defense formula described in this story was developed thanks to the efforts of the JSA, who, as shown in All-Star Comics #10 (April/May 1942), retrieved the formula's components on a time journey to the 25th century. As revealed in All-Star Squadron #2 (Oct. 1981), it was the JSA's nemesis Per Degaton who really sabotaged the bomb defense formula, although that fact is mentioned only in passing in this storyline.

America vs. the JSA #1 (Jan. 1985)

Nov. 27, 1984: Testifying before Congress, the JSA begins a detailed account of their origin and illustrious career, from their first adventure to America's entry into World War II. The session is interrupted by the arrival of the Spectre, who, outraged by the whole affair, threatens to destroy the Earth if the Justice Society is not set free. RT/MH/AA

America vs. the JSA #2 (Feb. 1985)

Nov. 28, 1984: The JSA's case is damaged by the incriminating testimony of the Wizard, but the villain undermines his credibility by attempting to use the hearing as an opportunity to escape. Meanwhile, Charles O'Fallon's silent partner — the JSA's old foe, Per Degaton — decides to take a more active hand. RT/HB/AA
NOTES: Dialogue between Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson in this story and this issue's text pages assert that Bruce Wayne's mistrust of the JSA was never explained and continued until Bruce's death. If Bruce Wayne continued to be suspicious of the Justice Society after being freed from the influence of the Psycho-Pirate, there was no indication of that antipathy in any previously published story; indeed, the opening pages of All-Star Comics #70 (Jan./Feb. 1978) strongly imply that he has reconciled with his former comrades. Another inconsistency is Degaton's dialogue in this issue, which indicates that he was paroled "last year," while other parts of the story indicate that Degaton has been free since before Bruce Wayne's death nearly six years earlier.

America vs. the JSA #3 (March 1985)

Nov. 29, 1984: With the JSA's trial drawing to a close, Dick Grayson learns from Professor Carter Nichols that Per Degaton was released from prison shortly before Bruce Wayne's death. Dick deduces, as Bruce did, that Degaton is preparing for the imminent return of Professor Zee's time machine, lost in 1947, but scheduled to return on the day of Zee's 100th birthday in 1984. Grayson and the JSA arrive at Zee's old lab just in time to see the machine reappear and hear the mortally wound Zee's dying declaration that Degaton had shot him 47 years earlier. Seeing no way to escape, Degaton takes his own life rather than return to prison. Later, Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne conclude that Batman's subconscious intention in writing the false diary was to lead the JSA to investigate Degaton's whereabouts and thwart his plans. Helena reveals to Dick that Bruce had terminal cancer in the last months of his life, attributing Bruce's irrational behavior to the disease's degenerative effects. RT/HB/AA
NOTES: This story makes no mention of the fact that Bruce Wayne was under the mental influence of the Psycho-Pirate during Bruce's campaign against the JSA — a significant point explicitly stated in All-Star Comics #69 (Nov./Dec. 1977), the other events of which are recounted in this issue. Based on the chronology outlined in this story, the accusatory diary was presumably written during that period. This story also implies that due to the effects of Dr. Fate's spell to protect Batman's secret identity (cast in Adventure Comics #463 (May/June 1979), Power Girl believes Batman and Bruce Wayne were separate people, something that seems highly improbable given Power Girl's friendship with Helena Wayne and clear knowledge of Helena and Dick's secret identities. In the post-Crisis universe, Professor Zee was apparently several years younger than his Earth-Two counterpart; his 100th birthday (and the return of his time machine) did not arrive until some months after the events of the Crisis, as seen in Infinity, Inc. Annual #2 (July 1988).

America vs. the JSA #4 (April 1985)

1985

July 23, 1985: Robin and the Huntress join their JSA comrades at the wedding of Alan Scott (Green Lantern) and Molly Mayne (the Harlequin) at St. Christopher's Cathedral in Los Angeles. RT/TM/Ron Harris/TDZ/DG/RHow/AA

Infinity, Inc. Annual #1 (1985)

Following the wedding reception of Alan Scott and Molly Mayne, the Justice Society is summoned to the Monitor's satellite by Harbinger. There, the JSA and the other assembled heroes discuss the Crisis, which has caused the surviving Earths and various eras in time to intersect, resulting in widespread chaos. After the meeting, Robin and the Huntress meet with Earth-One's Batman and Robin at Earth-One's Wayne Manor. RT/TM/TDZ (Infinity, Inc.) / MW/GP/JO (Crisis on Infinite Earths)

Infinity, Inc. #21 (Dec. 1985), Crisis #5 (Aug. 1985)

The Huntress and Power Girl share their anxieties as the red skies of the Crisis rage overhead. RT/TM/RH/TDZ/DG
NOTES: The conversation between Power Girl and the Huntress in Infinity, Inc. #24 is the same one begun in Crisis on Infinite Earths #7 (Oct. 1985). Infinity, Inc. #24 was the last issue of that series to take place prior to the merging of Earths following Crisis on Infinite Earths #10 (Jan. 1986).

Crisis #7 (Oct. 1985),
Infinity, Inc. #24 (March 1986)

The Huntress and Power Girl are among the many Earth-Two heroes battling an army of super-villains that is attempting to conquer the five surviving Earths. MW/GP/JO

Crisis #9 (Dec. 1985)

The Huntress and Robin join dozens of other heroes for a climactic confrontation with the Anti-Monitor at the Dawn of Time. The Anti-Monitor's victory initially seems inevitable, but he is opposed by the Spectre, leading to a cataclysmic battle that seemingly destroys all of creation. MW/GP/JO

Crisis #10 (Jan. 1986)

The survivors of the battle at the Dawn of Time awaken on a new Earth, similar to Earth-One, but incorporating elements of Earths -Two, -Four, -S, and -X. Initially believing they are on Earth-One, Superman and the Flash attempt to use Barry Allen's Cosmic Treadmill to return home, only to discover that the vibrational space Earth-Two previously occupied is now empty; their world no longer exists. Some of Earth-Two's heroes, like the Flash, find that they are part of the unified Earth's history, while others — including Earth-Two's Superman, Wonder Woman, Robin, and the Huntress — discover that no one other than their fellow survivors even recognizes them. Dick Grayson and Helena Wayne are horrified to learn that in the recreated universe, Earth-Two's Batman simply never was and that they have been spared from oblivion solely by their presence at the Dawn of Time. MW/GP/JO

Crisis #11 (Feb. 1986)

Seeking final vengeance, the Anti-Monitor draws the entire Earth into his own antimatter universe and unleashes a vast host of shadow demons. As Earth's most powerful heroes assault the Anti-Monitor's stronghold on Qward, the Huntress and Robin are crushed to death beneath the rubble of a collapsing building in Gotham. The Anti-Monitor is finally destroyed by Earth-Two's Superman and the Earth is returned to the positive matter universe. Afterward, Earth-Two's Wonder Woman and her husband depart the mortal realm to dwell forever in Olympus while the Earth-Two Superman and Lois Lane, the Superboy of Earth-Prime, and Alex Luthor (the last survivor of Earth-Three) enter a paradisaical pocket dimension, seemingly to to live happily ever after. MW/GP/JO
NOTES: A caption in the final pages of this story asserts that the bodies of Robin and the Huntress "were never found," but writer Roy Thomas later established that their bodies were recovered by the JSA sometime prior to the Last Days of the JSA Special (q.v.) so that readers would not assume that Dick and Helena had somehow survived. The conclusion of this story was intended to be a happy ending for the original Superman and his wife, but, as seen in Infinite Crisis, their ultimate fate was a good deal less cheery.

Crisis #12 (March 1986)

The Justice Society of America gathers a final time to mourn the loss of Superman and Wonder Woman and the deaths of Robin and the Huntress, who are buried on the grounds of Hall Manor (the home of Carter and Shiera Hall, alias Hawkman and Hawkgirl). As the JSA prepares to disband for good, they are drawn away by the Spectre to engage in an eternal battle in another dimension, apparently never to return. RT/DR/MGu
NOTES: The text implies that Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson were buried alongside the bodies of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle, which was plainly impossible: Bruce and Selina were buried in a public cemetery in Earth-Two's Gotham City and (as explicitly stated in Crisis on Infinite Earths #11) their graves ceased to exist when the Earths were combined. Presumably, the JSA erected markers to honor their fallen friends at the same time Dick and Helena were buried.

Last Days of the JSA (1986)

Power Girl, Dr. Fate, and the Star-Spangled Kid, the only surviving JSA members, inform the members of Infinity, Inc. of the JSA's fate. The Infinitors share the sad news with the JSA's other friends and relatives while trying to come to terms with the loss. RT/TM/TDZ
NOTES: This issue was the last appearance of Earth-Two's Robin and the Huntress — albeit only as images — until Supergirl v.4 #79 (April 2003).

Infinity, Inc. #30 (Sept. 1986)

Power Girl tries to understand why she still exists when the Krypton on which she was born never did. She learns that in the post-Crisis universe, she is actually the granddaughter of Arion, Lord High Mage of ancient Atlantis, and was sent through time to protect her from Arion's evil brother, Garn Daanuth. PK/Mary Wilshire
NOTES: Arion was created by Paul Kupperberg and artist Jan Duursema in Warlord #55 (March 1982); most of his adventures were set more than 47,000 years ago, prior to the sinking of Atlantis. This story was the final textual reference to the Earth-Two Superman prior to The Kingdom #1 (Jan. 1999). Infinite Crisis #2 (Jan. 2006) implies that at some point after the events of this story, Power Girl (and all of the other survivors of Earth-Two integrated into the post-Crisis universe, save the Psycho-Pirate) lost all memory of her Kryptonian origins and her relationship with the Earth-Two Superman; that presumably occurred after the events of the following entry.

Secret Origins #11 (Feb. 1987)

The goddess Aphrodite and the time-traveling android villain Mekanique, who have been able to temporarily delay the full reality- and history-altering effects of the merging of Earths for their own purposes, finally allow those changes to "take hold." All recollection of the Golden Age Aquaman, Batman, Catwoman, Green Arrow, Huntress, Robin, Speedy, Superman, Wonder Woman (and all other Earth-Two heroes who had doppelgangers on Earth-One) fades from the reformed Earth. The only one who still remembers the full history of what has gone before is the Psycho-Pirate, who is driven mad by the knowledge. RT/AJ/MC (All-Star Squadron) / Kurt Busiek/Trina Robbins (Legend of Wonder Woman)
NOTES: Although these stories were published prior to Infinity, Inc. #30 (Sept. 1986), they take place after it. The Earth-Two Green Arrow died in Crisis on Infinite Earths #12; it is unclear whether the Earth-Two Speedy and Aquaman also perished in that battle, whether they had died sometime earlier, or whether they simply disappeared either when the Earths were merged or once the changes to history were complete. The implications of the Psycho-Pirate's continued knowledge of the multiverse were addressed in Animal Man #22–26 (April – Aug. 1990)

All-Star Squadron #60 (July 1986), Legend of Wonder Woman #4 (Aug. 1986)

The Modern Era

Due to the timestream-warping effects of Zero Hour, the post-Crisis Superman encounters versions of Batman from various alternate timelines, several of whom resemble the Batman of Earth-Two. Louise Simonson/Jon Bogdanove/Dennis Janke
NOTES: It is unclear if any of the incarnations of Batman who appear in this Zero Hour crossover is actually the Earth-Two Batman or if they are all just similar-looking versions of Batman from other timelines.

Superman: The Man of Steel #37 (Sept. 1994)

As the timestream of the post-Crisis universe unravels, Alfred Beagle briefly appears in the Batcave, where he meets the post-Crisis Batman and Robin III (Tim Drake). Alan Grant/Bret Blevins
NOTES: The version of Alfred who appears in this Zero Hour crossover is drawn to resemble the Earth-Two Alfred Beagle as he was depicted prior to the events of Detective Comics #83 (Jan. 1944). However, it is unclear whether this Alfred or the Golden Age Batman and Robin depicted in flashback in this story are actually the Earth-Two characters or simply the denizens of a similar alternate timeline. Tim Drake, the post-Crisis universe's third Robin, first appeared in Batman #436 (Aug. 1989), although he did not become Robin until Batman #442 four months later.

Batman: Shadow of the Bat #31 (Sept. 1994)

The Golden Age Superman finds himself trapped in an empty simulacrum of Earth-Two's Metropolis. He ultimately discovers a way to escape, although he chooses not to do so, at least for now. Mark Waid/Ariel Olivetti/Mike Zeck
NOTES: This miniseries introduced the little-used concept of Hypertime, which was intended to allow stories and characters from other timelines (including pre-Crisis continuity) to interact with the unified post-Crisis/post-Zero hour DC Universe. A figure that appears to be Golden Age Superman is seen briefly at the beginning and end of the story. The events of Infinite Crisis six years later strongly suggest that this figure is indeed the Earth-Two Superman, although his presence here was not explained until Infinite Crisis Secret Files and Origins #1 (April 2006).

The Kingdom #1–2 (Jan.–Feb. 1999)

The post-Crisis Supergirl finds herself on Earth-One prior to the Crisis, where she takes the place of her pre-Crisis counterpart. Along the way, she briefly encounters the JLA and JSA, including Earth-Two's Robin and Huntress. Peter David/Ed Benes/Alex Lei
NOTES:  This was the first canonical appearance of the (adult) Earth-Two Robin and the Huntress since Infinity, Inc. #30 (Sept. 1986).

Supergirl v.4 #79 (April 2003)

The Psycho-Pirate confronts Power Girl with images of her various possible origins, including ghostly representations of Earth-Two's Robin and Huntress. Power Girl's original Kryptonian powers begin to reappear. Geoff Johns/Amanda Conner/Jimmy Palmiotti
NOTES:  The Earth-Two Robin and Huntress appear only as images in the final chapter of this story, JSA Classified #4 (Dec. 2005). This storyline strongly implies that Power Girl's post-Crisis origins are all false, a point confirmed by the subsequent Infinite Crisis series.

JSA Classified #1–4 (Sept.–Dec. 2005)

After years of observing from their pocket dimension, Earth-Two's Superman and Lois Lane-Kent, Earth-Three's Alex Luthor, and Earth-Prime's Superboy conclude that the post-Crisis universe is irretrievably corrupt. Luthor convinces the others that the only solution — and the only way to save the aging and increasingly frail Lois — is to recreate the Multiverse. The elder Superman returns to the post-Crisis universe, where no one, not even the survivors of the battle at the Dawn of Time, remembers him. Superman attempts unsuccessfully to enlist the aid of Batman by telling him about the life of Earth-Two's late Batman and helps Power Girl rediscover that she is, as she always was, a survivor of Krypton-Two. Unbeknownst to the Man of Tomorrow, Alex Luthor and the increasingly unstable Superboy-Prime have already made many trips to the post-Crisis Earth, carrying out a ruthless plan to gather the resources necessary to complete Alex's universe-altering equipment. Alex briefly succeeds in recreating Earth-Two, attempting to repopulate it with heroes who were previously native to that world, but Lois dies and Superboy suffers a complete psychological breakdown, making him a brutal psychopath. The new Multiverse seemingly collapses, Earth-Two's Superman perishes in battle with Superboy Prime, and Alex Luthor is eventually murdered by his vengeful post-Crisis counterpart and the Joker. Geoff Johns/Phil Jimenez/Andy Lanning
NOTES: Earth-Two's Batman, Robin, and Huntress appear briefly (in flashback) in issues #2, #3, and #4, although some of the details Superman describes do not jibe with previously established Earth-Two continuity. This may have been authorial or editorial error, but Superman's actions throughout this story suggest that his memories of his vanished world are highly selective, to say the least. In Infinite Crisis #5, Bette Kane (a.k.a. Flamebird) is one of the heroes transported by Alex Luthor to the recreated Earth-Two, implying that she was originally from that Earth. As previously mentioned, there is no other indication that Betty Kane/Bat-Girl existed on Earth-Two, although it is possible that Alex was simply mistaken. Alex Luthor, incidentally, first appeared in Crisis on Infinite Earths #1 (April 1985), while Superboy-Prime first appeared in DC Comics Presents #87 (Nov. 1985).

Infinite Crisis #1–7 (Oct. 2005–June 2006)

The ghost of Earth-Two's Batman briefly appears to help Jakeem Thunder defeat the Gentleman Ghost. PL/Rags Morales/Luke Ross/Dave Meikis
NOTES: Jakeem Thunder, the successor of Johnny Thunder and inheritor of Thunder's magical Thunderbolt, first appeared in The Flash v.2 #134 (Feb. 1998).

JSofA v.2 #85 (July 2006)

Time-traveling scientist Rip Hunter discovers that the after-effects of Alex Luthor's plan to recreate the pre-Crisis Multiverse have led to the emergence of a new multiverse of 52 parallel worlds. One of those is a new Earth-2, inhabited by counterparts of the pre-Crisis Justice Society and Infinity, Inc. (now amalgamated as Justice Society Infinity), including the Earth-Two Robin and the Huntress. Geoff Johns/Grant Morrison/Greg Rucka/Mark Waid/KG/Mike McKone/et al
NOTES: Justice Society Infinity, the amalgamation of the JSA and Infinity, Inc., glimpsed briefly in this issue, was not actually named until Justice Society of America v.3 Annual #1 (July 2008). Rip Hunter first appeared in Showcase Comics #20 (May 1959), by Jack Miller and artist Ruben Moreira.

52 #52 (May 2007)

Power Girl is transported to the new (post-Infinite Crisis) Earth-2, which she discovers is very similar to the pre-Crisis Earth-Two except that its history was never merged with any other Earth and both Robin and the Huntress — who, like her pre-Crisis counterpart, is Helena Wayne, daughter of the late Batman — are still alive. Kara finds that the Huntress has recently quit the Justice Society Infinity and intends to execute her world's elderly Joker. He has discovered Helena and Dick's secret identities and horribly disfigured Gotham City District Attorney Harry Sims (to whom Helena had recently become engaged) in an attempt to create a new Two-Face. Although Power Girl narrowly stops the Huntress from murdering the decrepit, wheelchair-bound Joker, the Clown Prince of Crime is electrocuted by his own joy buzzer. Afterward, the Huntress admits that she is in love with her world's Dick Grayson, but although he feels the same way, she has decided not to act on her feelings, unwilling to abandon Harry. Power Girl is then confronted by her own Earth-2 doppelganger, who believes Kara is an imposter. Geoff Johns/JO/Bob Wiacek
NOTES: Since this story establishes that Power Girl (who is a survivor of the pre-Crisis Earth-Two) and her Earth-2 counterpart are distinct, separate individuals, the same is clearly true of these versions of Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson. It appears that their histories diverged at some point prior to the Crisis. In pre-Crisis history, Helena largely eschewed her late father's equipment and paraphernalia, had no incestuous feelings for Dick Grayson, and had broken up with Harry Sims over three years before the Crisis. The ages of the Earth-2 characters are unclear; the pre-Crisis Helena would be about 50 by this time, Dick Grayson would be almost 80, and the Joker probably close to 100. 

Justice Society of America v.3 Annual #1 (July 2008)

Earth-2's JSI pursues Power Girl to Earth-0 on the mistaken assumption that Power Girl was somehow involved in the disappearance of Earth-2's Superman. The Earth-2 Robin, Huntress, and Power Girl capture and brutally interrogate Earth-0's Power Girl in Earth-2's Batcave before the JSI and Earth-0's JSA finally call a truce. The whereabouts of the Earth-2 Superman remain unknown. Geoff Johns/Dale Eaglesham/JO/Nathan Massengill/Bob Wiacek (#19)/Bob Wiacek (#20). NOTE: After telepathically scanning the two Power Girls in #20, Earth-2's Brainwave tells the Earth-2 Kara, "Her brain patterns match yours. Exactly. Her memories diverge at a point, but other than that — she's you." The exact point of divergence was never established.

Justice Society of America v.3 #19–20 (Nov.–Dec. 2008).

The Earth-2 JSI battles Per Degaton, who is snatched away and absorbed by one of his own alternate-universe/alternate-timeline counterparts. Marc Guggenheim/Tom Derenick
NOTES: The Degaton of the JSI chapter of this issue is depicted as being a relatively young man, implying that he may have come from an earlier era. In any case, this was the final pre-Flashpoint appearance of the JSI and the post-Infinite Crisis Earth-2. Following the Flashpoint reboot, a third Earth-2 was introduced, this one bearing only the broadest resemblance to its pre-Crisis equivalent. The "New 52" Helena Wayne, first seen in Huntress v.3 #1 (Oct. 2011), is also the daughter of her world's Batman and Catwoman and is a close friend of Power Girl's, but her history is otherwise very different from that of her pre-Crisis counterpart or the post-Infinite Crisis Earth-2 Huntress.


Justice Society of America v.3 #50 (April 2011)

Convergence

The pre-Flashpoint Earth-2 Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson are among the refugees from parallel Earths who have been trapped in city domes by the mysterious being Telos and forced to fight other refugees for their cities' survival. Robin and the Huntress nearly succeed in killing Earth-30's Soviet Superman with the help of that Earth's Batman and a piece of Kryptonite, but finally strike a truce instead. Afterward, Dick finally accedes to Helena's wish that he succeed Earth-2's Bruce Wayne as the new Batman. Their eventual fate and the fate of their universe is unknown. Len Wein/Denys Cowan/Bill Sienkiewicz NOTES: Although the title page claims that the city in which Helena and Dick are trapped is Metropolis of the pre-Crisis Earth-Two, various details of the story suggest that this Helena Wayne and Dick Grayson are almost certainly the ones who appeared in Justice Society of America v.3 prior to Flashpoint, albeit probably plucked from an earlier point in that reality's timeline. (This story begins during the first Crisis, whereas the characters' previous appearances took place some time afterward.) Curiously, this Robin wears his older gray and yellow costume, claiming to have worn it exclusively since Bruce Wayne's death. In pre-Crisis history, he had abandoned that costume several years prior to Bruce's death and never returned to it. Similarly, Helena's expressed wish for Dick to become Batman is the exact opposite of what her pre-Crisis counterpart told Dick at Bruce's funeral in Adventure Comics #462 (March/April 1979). The Earth-30 Superman and Batman first appeared in the Elseworlds miniseries Superman: Red Son #1–3 (April–June 2003), by Mark Millar, Dave Johnson, and Killian Plunkett. That world's Batman actually perished in the second issue of the miniseries, set in 1978.

Convergence: Detective Comics #1–2 (June–July 2015)

The Future: What Might Have Been

c. 2043: A laboratory accident sends Rob Callendar back in time to the year 1943, where he attempts to steal items that he knows will be worth a fortune in his native era. Unfortunately for Callendar, the space-time warp eventually returns him to the 21st Century without his booty. BF/JR/FR
NOTES: The precise year of Rob Callendar's accident is not specified in the story, although the date on a well-worn penny Callendar drops in 1943 is dated 2043, suggesting that he was from some time after that year.

World's Finest #11 (Fall 1943)

2050: Accidentally transported into the future by Professor Carter Nichols, Batman and Robin meet the future Gotham's police chief, Rokej, a law-abiding descendant of the Joker, compete in an interplanetary race, and apprehend a crooked spacecraft manufacturing engineer who has been sabotaging his own company's ships to make them easy prey for space pirates. BF/LS/CP
NOTES: Rokej's exact relationship to the Joker is not specified in this story, nor is there any explanation of why the Joker's descendant would also have green hair and white skin. (This story was published roughly seven months before Detective Comics #168 (Feb. 1951), which was the first story to establish that the Joker's hair and unusual pallor were the result of chemical exposure.)

Batman #59 [3] (June/July 1950)

April 19, 3000: The Earth is invaded and subjugated by the forces of the warlord Fura, a native of the planet Saturn. In the weeks that follow, a man named Brane (a descendant of Bruce Wayne) and his friend Ricky, inspired by newsreel footage of the original Caped Crusaders, assume the identities of Batman and Robin. Together, the new Batman and Robin lead the people of the Earth in an armed revolt against the Saturnine invaders, eventually liberating both Earth and Saturn. JG/DS
NOTES: The epilogue of Batman #700 (Aug. 2010), written by Grant Morrison and drawn by David Finch, shows a future Batman and Robin battling Fura at the direction of an aged Terry McGinnis, the future Batman from the 1999–2001 Batman Beyond cartoon show, who exists on Earth-12 in the current Multiverse.

Batman #26 [3] (Dec. 1944/Jan. 1945)

3051: Inspired by the history of the original 20th-century heroes, interplanetary businessman Brane Taylor and his nephew fight evil throughout the solar system as the 31st Century's Batman and Robin. When Taylor's nephew breaks his leg, Taylor travels back in time to enlist the temporary assistance of the original Robin. The Boy Wonder helps Taylor infiltrate the prison mining colony on Vulcan — an asteroid orbiting between the sun and Mercury — in order to stop an interplanetary smuggling racket led by the space pirate Yerxa. The original Batman subsequently makes a brief visit to Taylor's era to help protect Taylor's secret identity. BF/DS/CP

Batman #67 [3] (Oct./Nov. 1951)

Brane Taylor once again visits the 20th century, where he fills in for the injured Batman. EH/DS/CP

Detective #216 (Feb. 1955)

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