Crystal Kid

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Bobb Kohan of Earth

First appearance: The Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (Mar. 1977)

In continuity: Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #272 (Feb. 1981)

Crystal Kid sketch from Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (1977); art by John Workman.
Crystal Kid faces his Legion Academy instructor, Wildfire. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #283 (1982); art by Howard Bender and Bruce Patterson.
Crystal Kid is freed from the Dominators' chambers. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #33 (1992); art by Chris Sprouse and Karl Story.

Crystal Kid was a character created by a Legion fan and printed in The Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (Mar. 1977). As proposed, his name was Rondo Kane, and he was created by Robert Cohen of Calgary, Alberta (whose name was used as inspiration for the character's in-comic alter ego).

Bobb Kohan was a young boy on a family picnic when his power to create crystal or transmute other objects into crystal surfaced... over his grandfather. As soon as he was allowed, he went straight to the Legion Academy to enjoy the camaraderie of other super-powered youths and to have a shot at Legion membership as Crystal Kid. (Legion v.2 #272) He remained at the Academy for years, becoming close friends with Nightwind and Lamprey, and with their Legionnaire trainer, Wildfire. (Legion v.2 #283, 304)

Glorith Reality (Legion v.4)

He was still a student when, due to the Legion's economic woes, the Legion Academy was shut down. Bobb drifted for a while until then-deputy leader Polar Boy caught up with him on Mars. The Legion was in dire need of new blood, and Crystal Kid was admitted as a member. Not long after, in the event called "Black Dawn," Wildfire disappeared. Bobb quit and began publishing anti-Earthgov leaflets and newspapers. (2995: The Legion Sourcebook)

The Dominators had taken over the government of Earth, and were looking for super-powered subjects for experimentation. Crystal Kid was taken and placed in their underground chambers. (Legion v.4 #27) His was adjacent to Danielle Foccart's, and she saved them from the chambers' destruction. (#33) They and two others linked up with a youthful group of Legionnaires called the "Batch SW6," and helped to liberate Earth.

When the SW6 heroes reformed a Legion, Crystal Kid hoped to join, but they were not interested in his talents. Instead he joined the United Planets Militia (the successor to the Legion Academy). (#57)

Note: Events from Legion volume 4 (sometimes called the "Five Years Later" era) are no longer part of any extant Legion continuity.

Post-Infinite Crisis

In the continuity following the Infinite Crisis (which restored the multiverse), Crystal Kid remained at the Legion Academy and along with Lamprey, Nightwind and Power Boy, took his final exams, and graduated. (Adventure Comics #524-528) He took an assignment with the Science police and served on the prison planet Takron-Galtos. (#529)

Note: The status of continuity of these post-Infinite Crisis events are questionable. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events of this era may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Gravity Kid

FORMER ACADEMY MEMBER

Name: Tel Vole of Earth

First appearance: Legion of Super-Heroes v.6 #6 (Dec. 2010)

Gravity Kid. From Adventure Comics #524 (2011); art by Phil Jimenez.

Little is known of Tel Vole, other than his tenure at the Legion Academy. He joined around the same time as several others (Dragonwing and Chemical Kid) who later became Legionnaires. (Legion v.6 #6)

Unlike those heroes, Gravity Kid (called "Gravity "Boy" in his first appearance) was more inclined to follow the rules. After his friends rushed in to face a dangerous Legion foe, Cosmic King, they were all defeated. (#528) This left Gravity Kid, Variable Lad and Glorith to back them up. Vole held his own but it was Variable Lad who turned the villain's powers back on him, resulting in both their deaths. (#529)

At the Academy, Tel entered a romantic relationship with fellow student Power Boy. (#523) When Jed graduated, he was assigned to duty with the Science Police on Takron-Galtos. Instead of staying at the Academy, Gravity Kid chose to take advantage of the S.P.'s "trailing spouse" provision and go with Power Boy. (#529)

Note: The status of continuity of these post-Infinite Crisis events are questionable. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events of this era may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Notes

Phil Jimenez on Gravity Kid:

"His costume is absolutely a throwback. The character himself is a huge fan of and student of the Legion. ... The sensibility of his costume was inspired by the older, sexier Mike Grell costumes. And so he’s the one that kind of wears the sort of open shirt, skin tight. I wanted something sexy and proud of it, partly because he works out for that body and partly because, well, this is something the Legion would have worn, you know, back in 2487. Think of how, in current day, the '80s are coming back in modern fashion, and imagine him wanting to look like that era of the Legion."

Lamprey

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Tayla Skott of Earth

First appearance: Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (Mar. 1977)

In continuity: Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #272 (Feb. 1981)

Sketch by John Workman from Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (1977).
Lamprey trains with Wildfire. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #283 (1982); art by Howard Bender and Bruce Patterson.
Lamprey profile picture from Who's Who in the Legion of Super-Heroes #3 (1988); art by Bové and K.S. Wilson.

Lamprey was a character created by a Legion fan and printed in The Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (Mar. 1977). As presented there, she was Angela Majors, and created by Scott Taylor of Portland, TX (whose name was the inspiration for her in-comic alter ego).

Tayla Skott was an ordinary girl until her scientist uncle performed an illegal experiment on her to see if it would be possible to give humans gills with which to breathe underwater. The experiment worked, but it also gave her greenish skin and the ability to absorb, store and project electricity. As soon as she was old enough, she applied and was accepted to the Legion Academy at the same time as Nightwind, who became one of her best friends. (Legionv.2 #272)

She also grew to be close friends with her Academy trainer, Wildfire, who told his sad origin story to his students (#283), and she has defended the sometimes obnoxious Legionnaire to her less understanding classmates. (#304)

She has participated in many training missions, such as the cleanup of the Dominator base on Kathoon (Legion v.3 Annual #3), and regular training sessions (#47), but never actually achieved Legion membership.

Retroboot (Post-Infinite Crisis)

In the continuity following the Infinite Crisis (which restored the multiverse), Lamprey remained at the Legion Academy and along with Power Boy, Nightwind and Crystal Kid, took her final exams and graduated. (Adventure Comics #524-528) She took an assignment with the Science Police. (#529)

Note: The status of continuity of these post-Infinite Crisis events are questionable. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events of this era may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Mandalla

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Tari Wahlmunn of Takron-Galtos

First appearance: Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 Annual #3 (1987)

Some text from Who's Who in the Legion #4 (1988)

Mandalla is the daughter of female inmate Suni Wahlmunn, on the prison world Takron-Galtos. She was born while her mother was serving a sentence for embezzlement. Wahlmunn was allowed to keep Tari with her until the child was fourteen years old, at which time she was transferred to a private school on Wahlmunn's homeworld, Earth.

Tari's mother never revealed her father's identity, but from the powers that Tari exhibits, he could be Titanian. Tari can project a thought sphere to engulf her target, causing hallucinatory, distorting effects by interfering with one's bioelectrical system. Ashamed of her mother's past, Tari wanted to free herself from the stigma of being born on a prison world, so she applied to the Legion Academy as soon as she arrived in Metropolis. She was accepted and her first mission was to help Duo Damsel's group clean up after the Dominators on Kathoon. (Legion v.3 Annual #3)

Mandalla graduated from the Legion Academy and entered the Science Police. (Adventure #527) Note: The status of continuity of these post-Infinite Crisis events are questionable. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events of this era may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Nightwind

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Berta Skye Haris of Earth

First appearance: Amazing World of DC Comics #12 (July 1976)

In continuity: Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #272 (Feb. 1981)

Nightwing sketch by John Workman from Amazing World of DC Comics #12 (1976).
Nightwind trains with Wildfire. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #283 (1982); art by Howard Bender and Bruce Patterson.
Besties: Nightwind and Lamprey. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #304 (1983); art by Keith Giffen.
Nightwind meets her end on Xolnar. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #15 (1991); art by Brandon Peterson and Carlos Garzon.

Nightwind began as a character created by a Legion fan and printed in "The Legion Outpost" section of The Amazing World of DC Comics #12 (July 1976). As proposed, she was the sister of Timber Wolf — "Nightwing," Lara Londo of Zoon. Their father, Mar Londo, gave her the powers of flight and "light blue mental stun bolts," whenever she entered the darkness. She was submitted by Robert Harris of Allentown, Pa. (whose name was the inspiration for her in-comic alter ego).

Berta Skye Haris was the inheritor of a recessive gene in her family that gave its females the power to create and control the winds. As soon as she was old enough, she tried out for the Legion as Nightwind, only to be rejected. (Legion v.2 #272)

Upon the suggestion of the Legionnaire Wildfire, whom she greatly admired, she enrolled in the Legion Academy along with fellow rejects, Lamprey and Crystal Kid. (#283) She and Lamprey became best friends and were rejected for Legion membership at least one other time. (#304)

Glorith Reality (Legion v.4)

During her stay in the Academy, Nightwind developed a serious attitude toward fighting crime. She was deemed ready to join the Legion in 2990, and was the last actual "graduate" of the Academy. She served a solid, if brief, tour of duty until the Legion was forced to disband in 2992. (2995: The Legion Sourcebook)

She was contacted by her former Academy teachers, Luornu Durgo and Chuck Taine, who offered her a teaching position at the United Planets Militia Academy on the planet Xolnar. Nightwind was a tough, successful trainer there. When the Khunds started overrunning United Planets worlds in 2995, Berta was chosen to lead a squad on a reconnaissance mission. The Khunds set their sights on Xolnar and slaughtered her and her entire squad. (Legion v.4 #15) The Legion eventually beat back the Khunds, and Berta was buried with full military honors on Xolnar. (#18)

Note: Events from Legion volume 4 (sometimes called the "Five Years Later" era) are no longer part of any extant Legion continuity.

Retroboot (Post-Infinite Crisis)

In the continuity following the Infinite Crisis (which restored the multiverse), Nightwind remained at the Legion Academy and along with Lamprey, Power Boy and Crystal Kid, took her final exams and graduated. (Adventure Comics #524-528) Nightwind took an assignment with the Science Police and served on the prison planet Takron-Galtos. (#529)

Note: The status of continuity of these post-Infinite Crisis events are questionable. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events of this era may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Power Boy

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Jedidiah Rikane of Earth

First appearance: Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes #240 (June 1978)

Who is Power Boy? From Adventure #354 (1967); art by Curt Swan.
Power Boy does his level best. Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 #14 (1985); art by Steve Lightle.
Jed is schooled by his longtime mentor, Luornu Durgo Taine, on planet Xolnar. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #15 (1991); art by Brandon Peterson and Carlos Garzon.
After graduating, Jed's boyfriend Gravity Kid decides to follow him to his first post, on Takron-Galtos. From Adventure Comics #528 (2011); art by Geraldo Borges and Ransom Getty.

Long before the first appearance of Jed Rikane, the name "Power Boy" became part of Legion lore when it appeared in an "Adult Legion" tale, in Adventure Comics #354 (Mar. 1967). Set in the Legion's future, when the Legionnaires were adults, the hero's name appeared on a memorial statue in the Legion's Hall of Heroes. The hero's full figure was not shown, so nothing was known, save that he had died in action.

Jed Rikane was born with a "condensed molecular structure," a super-dense body that gave him super-strength, partial invulnerability, and purple skin. Hoping to join the Legion, he entered the Legion Academy, where he remained for years, going on many training missions. (Superboy & the Legion #240, Legion v.2 #304)

He stood ready to back up the Legion when necessary (Legion v.3 #4), helped friends in need (#9), and pestered whomever necessary to get a tryout for Legion membership. (#12) He finally got to apply in 2986, but was rejected, and though he stayed at the Academy, he lost any hope of being a Legionnaire at that time. (#14) He decided to stay at the Academy anyway, participating in many more training missions (Annual #3) and sessions. (#47)

Glorith Reality (Legion v.4)

After the Legion's dissolution, the Legion Academy became the United Planets Militia Academy. Jed and many others moved with Chuck and Luornu Taine to the planet Xolnar. Jed died on that planet during a Khund attack (thus fulfilling the ominous destiny of the Adult Legion "Power Boy"). (Legion v.4 #17)

Note: Events from Legion volume 4 (sometimes called the "Five Years Later" era) are no longer part of any extant Legion continuity.

Retroboot: Post-Infinite Crisis

In the continuity following the Infinite Crisis (which restored the multiverse), Jed had not died. He remained at the Legion Academy and along with Lamprey, Nightwind and Crystal Kid, took his final exams and graduated. (Adventure Comics #524-528)

Jed accepted an assignment with the Science police and served on the prison planet Takron-Galtos. There it was revealed that Jed was in a committed relationship with fellow student Gravity Kid, who took advantage of the Science Police's "trailing spouse" provision to join him there. (#529)

Note: The status of continuity of post-Infinite Crisis events (Legion volumes 6 and 7) are in question. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Other Power Boys

There have been several DC characters to share names with this hero:

  • Zarl Vorne was the first character called Power Boy, and his origin paralleled Superboy's. An Atlantean couple that foresaw Atlantis' destruction used a rocket ship to send their infant child to the asteroid Juno, where he was raised by a man who adopted him (Superboy #52, Oct. 1956).
  • In 1973, onetime Legion artist Dave Cockrum once sketched his own "Power Boy," a member of a proposed group called the Outsiders.
  • Jack Knight (Starman) encountered the evil Jediah Rikane, who ultimately perished in battle in Starman #57-60 (Aug.-Nov. 1999).
  • The third Power Boy was a native of Apokolips who became a member of the Teen Titans after the Infinite Crisis. He first appeared in 52 #21 (Nov. 2006), with Little Barda. He wore a costume that was an homage to Power Girl's and appeared again in Supergirl v.5 (#11, 14, 15). He was killed by one of the sons of Trigon (Titans East Special, Jan. 2008)

Shadow Kid

ACADEMY GRADUATE

Name: Grev Mallor of Talok VIII

First appearance: Adventure Comics #344 (May 1966)

Tasmia and Grev Mallor meet the spirits of their ancestors in a sacred cave on Talok VIII. From Secret Origins #8 (1986); art by Tom Mandrake.
Shadow Kid appears among the galaxy's heroes in the Super-Stalag of Space. From Adventure Comics #345 (1966); art by Curt Swan and George Klein.
Dawnstar in action! From Superboy & the Legion #240 (1978); art by James Sherman and Bob McLeod.
Grev decides to return to Talok VIII. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 Annual #3 (1984); art by Curt Swan and Romeo Tanghal.
Shadow Kid and Shadow Lass face the threat of Lady Memory, the inheritor of another ancient birthright. From Tales of the Legion of Super-Heroes #18 (1984); art by Terry Shoemaker and Karl Kesel.
Lady Memory profile picture from Who's Who in the Legion of Super-Heroes #3 (1988); art by Bové.

Grev Mallor is a descended from a long line of heroes of the desert planet Talok VIII. After his father's death near a cave on the outskirts of Talok City, Grev was raised by his grandfather — Sarven Mallor, its Planetary Champion. His grandfather's work kept him in the city, but Grev preferred to remain with the rest of his family near the site of an ancient cave, which was sacred to their ancestors.

Grev obeyed and never entered the cave. That is, until the day he met his older cousin, Tasmia Mallor (Shadow Lass). Tasmia arrived with sad news: Sarven had died. Tasmia was sent from the city to discover the secret to her family's shadow-casting abilities; she could succeed her grandfather as their Champion. She bore an artifact that led her to the sacred Cave of Shadows. She and Grev entered the cave and were greeted by the spirits of their ancestors, including their grandfather. The cave unlocked their inheritance and they emerged with super-powers. (Secret Origins v.2 #8)

Being older, Tasmia became the new Champion and Grev took to the stars to find his own place as a hero. The inexperienced youth instead found Nardo, an evil being who captured and subjugated heroes from many worlds in his Super-Stalag of Space. Grev remained there for several months before being freed by members of the Legion of Super-Heroes. (Adventure #344-345) Note: Shadow Kid appeared in only a couple panels and had no speaking parts. Who's Who in the Legion #6 (Oct. 1988) confirmed that the character in this story was Grev.

Then as fate would have it, Tasmia was eventually invited to join the Legion as well, after the Legion helped her deter the Fatal Five. When she left, Grev was offered the mantle of Champion, but declined, feeling that he needed further training. He enrolled in the Legion Academy, training in real-life assignments such as recapturing loose dangerous animals. (Superboy and the Legion #240, Legion v.2 #304) Note: In Superboy #240, he was called "Shadow Lad," and identified as Shadow Lass' younger brother, not cousin.

After several years of training, he chose to leave the Academy and return as protector of Talok VIII. But while discussing the subject with Bouncing Boy, he was kidnapped by a group of sorcerers who wanted to use his and Tasmia's darkness powers to revive Mordru. (Legion v.2 Annual #3) After this case, he remained on call with his fellow students to assist the Legion against the Legion of Super-Villains. (Legion v.3 #4)

Back on Talok VIII, he discovered that the Yakka-Mahor mountain men were massing for an attack on Grev's tribe, being led by the beautiful Lady Memory. Grev was captured by her hired enforcer, the Persuader. Shadow Lass began to worry when she stopped receiving his regular transmissions, so she and several Legionnaires returned to Talok VIII to investigate, and rescued him. (Tales of the Legion #318-319) Because he was unable to stop the Persuader, he returned to the Legion Academy. (Legion v.3 Annual #3)

Glorith Reality (Legion v.4)

Grev and his wife, Lady Memory, plan for defending their planet against the Khunds. From Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #15 (1991); art by Brandon Peterson and Carlos Garzon.
Shadow Kid graduates from the Legion Academy and returns to become Talok VIII's champion. From Adventure Comics #527 (2011); art by Geraldo Borges and Marlo Alquiza.
In the Legion of universe 247, Grev became possessed and his cousin had to put him down. From The Legion #24 (2003); art by Steve Lightle and Jason Wright.

Grev Mallor remained his planet's champion until the dissolution of the Legion, when his cousin returned home and was awarded the title again. But when her lover, Mon-El, died, Tasmia went into mourning and Grev was reinstated as Champion. (Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #4)

When the Khund race tried to infiltrate Talok society by allying with the hill people, it was revealed that Grev had married Kahnya Nahtahnie (Lady Memory) in a move to make peace between her people and his. (#15) A great battle came to Talok VIII and with the Legion's help. (#16-17)

Note: Events from Legion volume 4 (sometimes called the "Five Years Later" era) are no longer part of any extant Legion continuity.

Retroboot (Post-Infinite Crisis)

Grev graduated from the Legion Academy and returned to Talok VIII. He assumed the planetary champion's role from his cousin, Tasmia. (Adventure #527)

Notes: In this continuity, he had not married Lady Memory. The status of continuity of post-Infinite Crisis events (Legion volumes 6 and 7) are in question. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Other Versions

In the Reboot Legion, Grev was referenced when Shadow Lass returned home to Talok VII. She found that Grev had died after being possessed by malevolent spirits. (The Legion #24)

The the Threeboot Legion, Grev was spotted once when his sister, Shadow Lass, returned home. They sparred per tradition and she bested him, retaining the title of planetary champion. (Supergirl and the Legion #23)

Appearances:

  • Adventure Comics #344-345, 527
  • Legion of Super-Heroes v.2 #304, Annual #3
  • Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 #4, 47, 54, Annual #3
  • Legion of Super-Heroes v.4 #4, 15-17
  • Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes #240
  • Tales of the Legion of Super-Heroes #318-319

Variable Lad

Oaa demonstrates his power. From Adventure Comics #529 (2011); art by Geraldo Borges and Marlo Alquiza.
Variable Lad sacrifices his life to defeat (and kill) Cosmic King. From Adventure Comics #529 (2011); art by Geraldo Borges and Marlo Alquiza.
ACADEMY MEMBER

Name: Oaa Tseldor of Jaquaa (deceased)

Known relatives: Dr. Gym'll (uncle)

First appearance: Legion of Super-Heroes v.6 #6 (Dec. 2010)

Oaa Tseldor is the nephew of the Legion's physician, Dr. Gym'll. Little is known about Tseldor's origins save what Gym'll has hinted, that he was the victim of some type of accident. (Adventure #524)

As Variable Lad, the boy entered the Legion Academy in order to gain control over his powers. He could transform his body into limitless shapes, and each came with a different super-power. (Legion v.6 #6)

Note: The status of continuity of post-Infinite Crisis events (Legion volumes 6 and 7) are in question. It was suggested in Legion v.7 #23 (Sept. 2013) that events may have occurred on a parallel Earth, not Earth-0.

Notes

Phil Jimenez on Variable Lad:

"Variable Lad is my throwback to ... Dr. Gym’ll. And when we were designing these characters, I wanted someone that was not just totally new. I always liked Dr. Gym’ll. I thought he was kind of funny, and I thought, oh, what if this Variable Lad was just, you know, is a favorite of the Legion doctor because he’s a good kid and he has this power. And so in designing him, I made him kind of like a taller, leaner version of that character, and knowing that his color is purple, I wanted to use colors that would really play off of that, which is why he’s in white and yellow.

"Further, he’s probably the most insecure on the team, at least in my head. ... He’s not a fighting character."

The Westerner

ACADEMY MEMBER

Name: Timthy Santoza of Earth

First appearance: Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 #24 (July 1986)

Some text from Who's Who in the Legion #7 (1988)

Santoza's power is the ability to absorb strength and endurance from others for his own use. This power runs in his family's bloodline, but never to the level found in Timthy, who studied under an off-planet tribal shaman. After applying to the Legion Academy, he learned more about using his power. (Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 #24)

Being one of the few mystics in the Academy, the Westerner strives to keep his temper in check and achieve true inner peace. His ambition is not to become a Legionnaire, but rather a teacher out in the frontier colony schools. (Who's Who in the Legion #7)

Other Academy Students

The cover of Tales of the Legion #339 (1986) features many Legion applicants, including Tiger Girl (with red skin)under Energy Boy's cape, and the Skreaks under his hand. This issue reprinted Legion v.3 #14 (1984). Art by Steve Lightle.

There have been many other Legion applicants and Academy students who have never been named. Some have appeared repeatedly. Some notable recurring characters include:

  • The "Herculean boy" was a tall, burly, bearded man wearing a harness, who has never been named but appeared first in Legion v.3 #24 (July 1986) and again in Legion v.3 Annual #3 (1987).
  • The Skreaks were fish-like aliens who appeared in a pair and "swam" in the air. Like Urk, they seemed to utter only their name. They applied for membership in Legion v.3 #14 (1984), and appear on its cover.
  • Tiger Girl is a mysterious red-skinned female who first appeared as an applicant in Legion v.3 #14 (1984), and on the cover of that issue. She resurfaced later as a student at the U.P. Militia Academy, in Legion v.4 #57 (May 1994), where she was shown transforming into a large red tiger-like creature. Note: She has never been named in-comic, but one of her artists, Christopher Taylor, confirmed in a message to Cosmic Teams that this was her name in the script.
  • Urk was identified by Duo Damsel as a student but nothing more is known about this small alien. He was first depicted in DC Sampler #1 (1983). Most often, he was seen eating or otherwise rooting around in the Legion's equipment. He was spotted hanging around the Legion of Substitute Heroes (Legion of Substitute Heroes Special) and also appeared on the cover of Legion of Super-Heroes v.3 #304 (Oct. 1983).

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