JUSTICE LEAGUE OF AMERICA
By Mark Gruenwald. From The Amazing World of DC Comics #14 (Mar. 1977), pp. 22–27.
Text was scanned from the original. © 1977 DC Comics, Inc.
Born to a woman from Atlantis named Atlanna and an American lighthouse-keeper lift named Tom Curry, Arthur Curry grew up to be Aquaman, for some years the appointed king of Atlantis, a domed city beneath the Atlantic Ocean. Like most Atlanteans, Aquaman possesses the ability to breathe underwater, but unlike most, his body can withstand the crushing pressure of the sea outside the dome. His powerful limbs enable him to swim at speeds comparable to the fastest fish, and his vision is so keen, It can penetrate the murky, dimly lit sea. Aquaman, like all Atlanteans, possesses a form of telepathy enabling him to communicate underwater with his race, but unlike most, he is able to mentally command all marine life. His major weakness Is that since he Is an amphibian, he cannot survive without some contact with water for more than one hour. On land, the longer he goes without total immersion, the proportionately weaker his powers become.
Aquaman became the first Justice Leaguer to marry (while a member) in AQUAMAN #18. His spouse, Mera, a princess from another watery dimension, has the ability of mentally solidifying water in whatever form she wills. Aquaman is at present the only Justice Leaguer who is a parent. His son; Arthur Curry Jr., was born in AQUAMAN #23 and is usually referred to as Aquababy. Prior to becoming king of Atlantis In AQUAMAN #18 Aquaman was assisted in his battle against crime on the high seas by Aqualad (who debuted in ADVENTURE #269) whom he taught to overcome his fear of fish. Aqualad teams with his mentor on occasion, but is more frequently active in the Teen Titans. Aqualad's Atlantean girlfriend, Tula, who first appeared in AQUAMAN #33 is usually called Aquaglrl. The Sea King's long-time friend. Dr. Vulko, replaced him as King of Atlantis when he abdicated the crown in ADVENTURE #448. Aquaman's major foes include his step-brother, Orm Marius (the Ocean Master), the Fisherman, the Black Manta, and the Marine Marauder.
Aquaman is one of the founding members of the Justice League. Although his royal responsibilities usually did not hinder him crime fighting capacity, he was granted a Leave of Absence around JLA #69 to search , for his wife, whose abduction occurred in AQUAMAN #40-49. He returned to active duty in JLA #86 and has been an active member since then. Aquaman participated actively in JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-24, 26-28, 31, 33, .35-36, 40-41, 44, 50. 53, 59, 61, 63, 65, 68, 86, 88, 90, 94, 97-100, 102, 104, 109, 111-112, 116, 118-119, 121-124, 127-128, 132, 138-139.
Aquaman appeared in his own series in WORLD' FINEST #6, 125-133, 135-139, (odd issues), ADVENTURE #103-117, 119-152, 154-164, (even issues), 167-168, 170-206, 208-280, 282, 284, 441-448, MORE FUN #73-107, DETECTIVE #293-300, SHOWCASE #30-33, and AQUAMAN #1-56. The 1940's adventures of Aquaman are generally acknowledged as being those of the Earth-Two Aquaman, who had an entirely different origin.
Ray Palmer, a physics professor at Ivy University, in Ivy Tow, Connecticut, was interested in the compression of matter. Designing a-shrinking lens from a white dwarf star fragment. Palmer found that although he could reduce something in size, the molecular structure of the object became so unstable that It exploded. When he and some friends were trapped in a cave-in, Palmer decided to use the shrinking lens on himself in order to find a means to escape. To his relief, he discovered that a lime solution that dripped on the lens negated its explosive side-effect. Palmer then developed a portable device by which he could control not only his size, but his weight. Designing a costume that was responsive to his size-and-weight controls (and became invisible when stretched to normal size). Palmer became the world's smallest super-hero, The Atom. As The Atom, he can assume any size from his normal six-foot stature down to sub-microscopic, although he generally deems a height of six inches as most functional. He can also assume any weight at any heightup to his full 180 pounds. It has never been explained where his mass goes when he discards it to make himself lighter. The Atom travels from place to place by soundwaves conducted through telephone wire. Originally, his size/weight controls were located in his belt buckle. However, he later moved them to his gloves for greater accessibility and swifter transitions.
The Atom is not married, although his alter ego has been engaged to lawyer Jean Loring for a number of years. Loring even represented the Justice League in court on one occasion (JLA #19). Other friends include Prof. Alpheua V. Hyatt, the scientist who invented the "Time Fool" method of time travel in ATOM #3, and lab assistant Enrichetta Negrini, who developed a space-warp machine in JLA #46. His closest superhero friends are Hawkman (Carter Hall) whom he first teamed with in ATOM #7, and the Earth-Two Atom (Al Pratt), whom he first met outside of JLA/JSA context in ATOM #29. The Atom acquired a pet bird named Major Mynah in ATOM #37, upon which he occasionally traveled about. but it has not been seen lately. The Atom's two major foes have been Chronos and Jason Woodrue the Plant-Master.
The Atom joined the Justice League in JLA #14, becoming the second new member since its inception. It was his first nomination and the vote was unanimous. He has been an active member ever since, participating in JUSTICE LEAGUE #14-22, 25-28, 31-34, 36, 40-42, 44-45, 47, 51, 53-54, 60-63, 65-66, 69-72, 74-75, 77-84, 86-88, 90-92, 94-95, 97-100, 104-105, 109, 112, 114-115, 117, 119, 121-122, 126, 128-131. 134, 139. The Atom appeared in his own strip in SHOWCASE #34-36, THE ATOM #1-38, ATOM & HAWKMAN #39-45, ACTION #425, 427, 430, 433, 435, 438-439, 442, 447-448, 453-454 and DETECTIVE #432. 436.
Bruce Wayne became an orphan as a small boy when his parents. Dr. Thomas and Martha Wayne, were murdered by a criminal named Joe Chill. He was raised by his Uncle Phillip Wayne, now deceased, who, like Thomas, left his fortune to Bruce. As he entered adulthood, he vowed to avenge his parents' death by fighting criminals in the garb of a bat, a symbol to strike terror In their hearts. Although he possesses no superhuman abilities, The Batman has trained himself to be a superb athlete and master of the martial arts. His keen analytical mind and broad base of knowledge make him a formidable criminologist. Batman wears a Utility Belt that contains a variety of gimmicks, notably the Batarang, a boomerang-like weapon. Batman's usual mode of travel is by means of rope, swinging from building to building, but for more distant or rapid transportation, he has a custom-made Batmobile, Batplane, Batcopter and smaller one-man Whirly-Bat.
His headquarters used to be the Batcave, beneath Wayne Manor, a cavern filled with crimefighting equipment and devices, but he has since moved to a penthouse apartment in the heart of Gotham City, New Jersey. As Bruce Wayne, he is the philanthropic head of the Wayne Foundation, a non-profit organization that donates money to crime prevention and criminal rehabilitation Batman's friends include his ward Dick Grayson, who was his costumed assistant. Robin for a number of years before going off to college and a solo career (with Teen Titan affiliations). Bruce Wayne's butler, Alfred Pennyworth, has served as his aide and confidant since early in his career, with the exception of the period from DETECTIVE #328-356, (when he was presumed dead, but was actually the superhuman Outsider.) Commissioner James Gordon, of the Gotham City police is a frequent ally, though he does not know Batman's true identity. Gordon's daughter, Congresswoman Barbara Gordon frequently dons the garb of Batgirl. Batman's closest superhero friend Is Superman, whom he first met in SUPERMAN #76. but he regularly teams with other heroes outside of JLA context in BRAVE & BOLD. Batman has had no steady girlfriend although a number of them have crossed his path over the years, most recently the mysterious Talia, daughter of the arch-foe Ras Al Ghul. Batman has had a number of supporting characters who are no longer an active part of his coterie, including Vicki Vale, a reporter introduced in BATMAN #49; Kathy (Batwoman) Kane who first appeared in DETECTIVE #233; her niece. Batty Kane, the first Batgirl, who debuted in BATMAN #139: Ace the Bathound (BATMAN #99), and Bat-Mite, a dimensional imp who plagued Batman with his hero-worship beginning in DETECTIVE #267. Since there have been no reference to most of these characters in over ten years, it is possible that some are not a part of the Batman on Earth-One's legend. Dick's Aunt Harriet became housekeeper of Wayne Manor in DETECTIVE #328 until Dick went off to college in BATMAN #217. Batman's worst enemies include The Joker, Penguin, Catwoman, Riddler, Two-Face, Scarecrow, and Ra« Al Ghul.
Batman was one of the founding members of the Justice League and has been active ever since, participating in JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-2, 4-5, 7, 9-23, 40-47, 49-54, 60-63, 65-66, 68-72, 74-75, 77-82, 84, 86-88, 90-91. 94-95, 97-101, 103-104, 106-113, 116-117, 119, 121-124, 127-128, 132, 134, 138-140. JLA #28 first reflected his new insignia (The bat symbol spot-lighted in a yellow oval) which he acquired in DETECTIVE #327/BATMAN #164. Batman appeared in his own series in DETECTIVE #27-466, BATMAN #1-282, WORLD'S FINEST #1-70 in his own series, and WORLD'S FINEST #71-197, 215-242, with Superman as co-star, and in regular BRAVE & BOLD team-ups in #67-71, 74-132. The appearances of Batman in the 1940's are generally attributed to have been the Earth-Two Batman, and some of the 1950's/early 1960's adventures may have been those of a third Batman the father of a teenage son who debuted in WORLD'S FINEST #215. This is not the Batman of Earth-One.
Dinah Drake began her career as Black Canary as a criminal who only stole from other criminals. She wore a mask and blonde wig in those days and employed her athletic and martial arts abilities. Under the guidance of Johnny Thunder, she was convinced to go straight and doffed her mask, still preying on criminals but turning the loot over to the police. She joined the Justice Society in ALL-STAR #37 and was an active member until their retirement in ALL-STAR #57. She then married detective Larry Lance and shelved her crimefighting career to devote full-time to her florist's shop. When the JSA went back into action in FLASH #137, she resumed her Black Canary identity, and participated in five JLA-JSA team-ups as a JSA member. In JLA #74, Larry Lance was killed by the mad star-being Aquarius, and Dinah was invited to Earth-One to escape unpleasant associations. Exposure to Aquarius' star-sphere augmented her martial arts prowess by endowing her with a "sonic whammy"-a mind-triggered force-blast of sound. She used this power from JLA #75-80 and not again until JLA #110. The power was described as difficult to direct. She had the ability to read minds in JLA #84 for some reason Black Canary opened up a florist's shop in Star City, Massachusetts of Earth-One, much like the one she had owned on Earth-Two. As Dinah Drake Lance, she became increasingly more intimate with fellow JLAer, Green Arrow (Oliver Queen). Thru Green Arrow, she became a close acquaintance of Green Lantern (Hal Jordan) and Speedy (Roy Harper). Black Canary has made no recurring enemies.
Black Canary became the Justice League's fourth new member, nominated in JLA #75 but not officially inducted until JLA 1 #78. She has been an active member ever since, participating in JUSTICE LEAGUE #75, 77-84. 88-89, 95, 97-100, 102, 104-105, 109-110, 112. 114, 118-121, 123-124, 127-128, 130, 132, 139-140. Black Canary's Earth-Two appearances are outlined under her biography in "Guest-Stars." Since her move to Earth-One, she has appeared rather infrequently outside JLA context. She had her own strip in ADVENTURE #418-419 and DETECTIVE #464, guest-starred in GREEN LANTERN #78, 80-87, and co-starred with Green Arrow in ACTION #428, 444-446, 450-452. 456-458.
Ralph Dibny had always been fascinated by the India Rubber Man at the carnival. One day he discovered that it was a soft drink named Gingold that enable the Rubber Man to stretch. Acquiring the potion, he drank a concentrated dose, donned a costume and touted himself the Elongated Man. Gingold alters the cellular property of living tissue so that is completely malleable and can form whatever shape the brain commands. Elongated Man is able to stretch any part of his body, including his eyes and hair, to extreme lengths till they are but wire thickness. Although it has not been definitively shown, there is probably a limit to how far his body can stretch without pain or damage. A humorous side effect of the potion is that whenever Ralph senses something mysterious, his nose wiggles. The Elongated Man must drink Gingold once every 24 hours in order to retain his elasticity.
Elongated Man first appeared in FLASH #112 as a supporting character to Flash. In FLASH #119, he married Sue Dearbon, becoming one of the first married super-heroes. At this time he decided to do away with a secret identity and revealed his real name to the world. Always a showman at heart, he became wealthy by cashing in on personal appearances throughout the world. Because he was using his super-powers for profit at the time, ' he was ineligible for JLA membership. While on the road, he sought out adventure and solved mysteries for fun rather than money. He has had no home base, although he frequently passes through Central City, Ohio, to visit the Flash. Elongated Man was nominated for membership by the Flash in JLA #42. He guest-starred with the JLA in JLA #51 and #100-102. After giving up paid personal appearances when he accumulated enough to live comfortably the rest of his life, Elongated Man was invited to join the JLA in JLA #105. Elongated Man participated actively in JUSTICE LEAGUE #105-108, 111-114, 116, 119-121, 128, 131, 139. Elongated Man guest-starred with Flash in FLASH #112, 115, 119, 124, 130, 134, 138, and had his own back-up strip in FLASH #206, 208, 210, 212. He had his own series in DETECTIVE #327-383, 426, 430 436, 444, 449, 453. 456-457, 462, 465. He received a new uniform in DETECTIVE #351, which he occasionally dyed yellow or purple before settling upon red as the most flashy color. He has made no regular enemies.
Police scientist Barry Alien was working late one night during an electrical storm when an errant lightning bolt struck his laboratory, bathing him in chemicals. As a result. Alien discovered that he had become the fastest man alive: able to run faster than the speed of light (eight times around the world in a second), across water like a skipping stone, and up the sides of buildings. His physical endurance was augmented to superhuman degree. He acquired an aura that Is impervious to friction and negates the rapid-aging effect of his hyper-fast metabolism. Alien became able to mentally change his frame of time-reference from super-fast to normal human parameters of perception. He developed total mastery over his molecular structure, allowing him to vibrate through solid matter and vibrate at rates corresponding to other dimensional planes. Alien designed a5 costume that could be stored in a compartment in his ring and decided to use his vast abilities to fight crime as The Flash. In FLASH #125, he built a Cosmic Treadmill which, when powered by his super-speed, allows him to travel through time. In FLASH #167, a dimensional imp named Mopee claimed that he gave Flash his super-speed, but story developments in JLA #59 supported Flash's earlier origin. Although Flash apparently believed the imp at the time, the fact that the revised origin has not been mentioned since would indicate that Mopee was just a practical joker trying to mislead The Flash.
Barry Allen married newspaper reporter Iris West in FLASH #165, after a courtship of several years, but did not reveal his Flash identity to her until FLASH #174. Ironically, Iris had known since their wedding night since Barry talks in his sleep. Iris was revealed to come from an alternate future of 1000 years hence in FLASH #203. The Flash lives in Central City, Ohio, and his friends and foes are legion. His superhero friends include Iris' "nephew" Wally West who became Kid Flash in FLASH #110 and Is primarily active in the Teen Titans; Hal (Green Lantern) Jordan, whom he first teamed up with outside of JLA context in GREEN LANTERN #13; and Jay (Flash of Earth-Two) Garrick, whom he first met in FLASH #123. Other friends include Iris absent-minded foster-father. Prof. Ira West; the curator of the Flash museum, Dexter Myles; the reformed villain Al (Mr. Element) Desmond; and Stacy Conwell, the Aliens' collegiate border. The Flash's main enemies have congenially formed a club called the Rogue's Gallery, and members Include Mirror Master, Captain Cold, the Weather Wizard, Heat Wave, Trickster, Captain Boomerang, Gorilla Grodd, and the Pled Piper. Two of Flash's villains come from the future: Professor Zoom (the Reverse-Flash), and Abra Kadabra. One Flash foe, The Top, Is deceased.
The Flash was one of the founding members of the JLA and appeared actively in BRAVE & BOLD #28-30 and JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-33, 35-36, 40-47, 49-50, 53-54, 56-57, 59-63, 65, 69-71, 74, 77, 80-82, 86-88, 96-100, 102-105, 109, 111-112, 115-116, 118-127, 129-131, 134-135, 137-140. He appeared in his own series in SHOWCASE #4, 8, 13-14 and FLASH #105-245.
Oliver Queen was a wealthy playboy who was shipwrecked on a deserted Island while taking an ocean cruise. Fashioning himself clothing from leaves, he designed a makeshift bow and arrow to help him forage for food. He found that his hunting ability could be augmented by specially-rigged arrows, such as one with a line attached for spearing fish. Stranded for months, Queen practiced long hours and gained amazing accuracy at archery. One day he spotted a passing ship, swam to it, and quelled a mutiny with his skills as a bowman. Enjoying the excitement. Queen decided to become a crimefighter and dubbed himself the Green Arrow. In his underground workshop beneath the Queen estate, he developed an arsenal of trick arrows and practiced daily at archery. Queen used his wealth to finance the Arrowcar, a customized vehicle with catapult seats (of which he got a new model in JLA #58) and the Arrowplane, a customized aircraft. Queen adopted a ward, Roy Harper. who had learned archery while living among the Indians. Harper became Green Arrow's assistant. Speedy. In BRAVE & BOLD #85, Oliver Queen grew a beard and sported a new Green Arrow's assistant, Speedy. In JLA #75, it was related how he lost his fortune to the crooked business dealings of rival financier, John Deleon, and went from a mansion in the country to the Inner city ghetto of Star City, Massachusetts. Despite various business dealings, he has never been able to amass a comparable fortune, but lives comfortably working as a self-employed publicity agent. Queen does not scrupulously guard his Green Arrow identity from the public, and even has his postman deliver to him letters addressed to Green Arrow. In FLASH #212, neighborhood punks left a note addressed to Green Arrow on his doorstep. Oliver Queen occasionally dabbles in politics.
Green Arrow's major steady girlfriend has been the widowed Dinah Drake Lance (Black Canary) who came from Earth-Two in JLA #75. As yet, there are no wedding plans in the couple's future. Speedy reached the age of majority about the same time Queen lost his fortune, and alternates between being a rock drummer for a group called the Great Frog, and a costumed crimefighter in the Teen Titans. Green Arrow's best superhero friend is Green Lantern (Hal Jordan), with whom he developed a staunch friendship in GREEN LANTERN #76. Green Arrow has had few recurring foes.
In JLA #4. Green Arrow became the first member to Join the Justice League since its initial formation. His JLA career is distinguished by the fact that he was the only gag member brought to trial by his peers for B(g treachery (JLA #5), and that he was the first member to resign (JLA #61, as part of a scheme to discover the impostor in the JLA).
His personality has evolved from being an innocuous second-stringer to a hot-headed moralist to an irascible wise mouth. Green Arrow convinced his friend Green Lantern to lake a Leave of Absence from the JLA with him in JLA #81 to tour America, but both returned to active status In JLA #87. Green Arrow actively participated In JUSTICE LEAGUE #4-8, 10-23, 26-28. 33, 36, 40, 44-45, 50, 53, 56-57, 60-61, 63, 65-66, 68-69, 71-72. 74-75. 77-80, 82-83, 88-89, 94-95, 97-98, 100, 102-105. 107-110, 112, 114, 116-117, 119, 121-124, 127-130, 132, 135, 137, 139-140. Green Arrow appeared in his own series in ADVENTURE #103-205, 207-269, WORLD'S FINEST #7-133, 244, MORE FUN #73-107, ACTION #421, 424. 426, 428, 431, 434. 436, 440-441, 444-446, 450-452, 456-458, DETECTIVE #466, and GREEN LANTERN #76-93 and FLASH #213-215 as co-star with Green Lantern. The Green Arrow adventures of the 1940's are generally acknowledged as being those of the Earth-Two Green Arrow (who was a member of the Seven Soldiers of Victory) and the 1950's adventures may or may not be those of the Earth-One archer.
When an alien named Abin Sur crash-landed on Earth, he realized he was dying and sent out a power beam to locate someone to take his place as the space sector's agent in the Green Lantern Corps, a galaxy-spanning band of crusaders against evil. Hal Jordan, a test pilot for Ferris Aircraft in Coast City, California, was found to be without fear, of staunch moral character, and possessing strong will power, so was transported to Abin Sur. As the alien's last act, Jordan was given the emerald power ring, the power battery with which to charge it. and the uniform of the Green Lantern Corps. The power ring can transform thoughts into substance, enable flight, and protect the wearer from bodily harm. Its only limitations are that it is ineffective over anything colored yellow and that is has to be recharged from the battery every 24 hours.
Later, Jordan discovered the existence of the Guardians of the Universe (GREEN LANTERN #1), a conclave of immortal aliens from Oa who founded the Green Lantern Corps to effect the cause of good. Until Jordan's suitability in the Corps was tested, he was not allowed to retain any memory of the Guardians. (This took place in GREEN LANTERN #7.) In GL #40 he learned of the legendary beginnings of the Guardians. The Guardians became so accessible in GL #55, that they allowed a Terran television program to be filmed about them. (The general public may have regarded it as science-fiction, or perhaps the Guardians, recognizing the oversight, erased the memories of all the viewers.)
Despite the fact that Jordan was not hand-picked by the Guardians themselves, he seems to have become one of their favorite operatives.
Hal Jordan has had a number of women in his life. Foremost is Carol Ferris, his one-time boss. She spurned his attention for that of his alter ego, Green Lantern, and became unexpectedly engaged to a man named Jason Belmore in GL #49. Dejected, Jordan left Coast City and became a drifter, finding employment as an insurance agent and traveling toy salesman. Over the years, he has become somewhat affectionate with Olivia Reynolds (GREEN LANTERN #10), a woman with a civilization living in her brain, Iona Vale (GL #8), a woman from the 58th Century, Katma Tui (GL #3&) a female Green Lantern, and Eve Doremus (GL #58).
However he returned to his first love, Carol Ferris in GL #8 , after learning she had never married, and revealed his identity to her. Green Lantern's male friends include his one-time confidant, Thomas "Pieface" Kalmaku formerly a mechanic and now a gas station owner; Tomar-Re, the Green Lantern of Xudar (introduced in GL #6) now retired, Alan Scott; the Green Lantern of Earth-Two (with whom he first teamed up outside of the JLA in GL #40), Barry Alien, The Flash (whom he joined for the first time outside of JLA context in GREEN LANTERN #13), and Oliver Queen Green Arrow, (whom he first teamed up with outside of JLA context in GREEN LANTERN #76). Hal Jordan's brothers, Jack and Jim, were introduced In GREEN LANTERN #7. and his uncle Larry (Air Wave) Jordan is slated to appear soon. Green Lantern's staunchest foes include Sinestro, Hector Hammond, Dr. Polaris. Black Hand, Evil Star, The Shark, and Sonar. Hal Jordan will soon be self-employed as a truck driver.
Green Lantern was a founding member of the JLA and other than his brief Leave of Absence with Green Arrow in JLA #81-87, he has been an active member ever since, participating in BRAVE a BOLD #28-30 and JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-33, 35-36, 40-42, 44, 46-47, 49, 51-52, 56, 60-63, 65-66, 68, 70-72, 74, 77-80, 82-83, 87-88, 90-92, 96-100, 102-106, 111-115, 117, 119-122, 125-130. 132, 135, 137, 139-140. Green Lantern debuted in SHOWCASE #22-24, appeared in his own magazine #1-93, and as a co-feature in FLASH #212-246.
Katar Hol and his wife, Shayera, were officers in the police force of Thanagar, a planet technologically superior to Earth, in the Polaris star-system. They were granted a leave from the force to come to Earth to study our less-advanced police methods, undoubtedly from the anthropological perspective. Assuming the names Carter and Shiera Hall, the alien couple took on the roles of museum curators in Midway City, Michigan and became enthralled with the possibilities that fighting crime on Earth offered. They decided to do so in their police uniforms as Hawkman and Hawkgirl. Possessing no superhuman abilities other than the capacity to communicate with birds in their language, Hawkman and wife wear anti-gravity belts and wings enabling them to fly. They frequently utilize ancient Earth weapons such as shields and maces borrowed from their place of employment.
In their small spacecraft orbiting Earth, they have access to the Absorbascon, a Thanagarian computer able to absorb all knowledge about a given culture and confer that knowledge to the user. Hawkman returned to Thanagar in BRAVE & BOLD #42 to be awarded ceremonial helmet-wings for capturing a Thanagarian criminal on Earth. He convinced his superiors to give him further leave, which did not expire until about ten years, later in JLA #109. He did visit his homeworld on'; a few occasions in the intervening years.
Other than his wife, Hawkman's friends on Earth include Commissioner George Emmett, who is aware of Hol's alien origin and identity, admirer Mavis Trent, space-hero Adam Strange (whom he first met in MYSTERY IN SPACE #90), and Ray (Atom) Palmer (whom he first met in ATOM #7). In HAWKMAN #22, Carter and Shiera Hall revealed their alien origin to the world (as civilians, not as Hawkman and Hawkgirl), which created a sensation for some reason as opposed to the casual public acceptance of Superman and Martian Manhunters ancestry. It is probable that they asked Superman to use his Amnesium, or Green Lantern his ring to cleanse the public mind, since it was hereafter never mentioned.
Hawkman joined the Justice League as its third new member In JLA #34. He had been previously nominated in JLA #4 but was ineligible at the time since he was not a full-time resident of Earth. He was active until JLA #109 when he was summoned to return to Thanagar, participating in JUSTICE LEAGUE #31-34, 36, 40-41, 43-47, 51-53, 57, 61-63, 65, 68, 71-72, 74-75, 78-84, 86-87, 89-92, 96-98, 100-101, 103-104, 106 and 109. When the Equalizer's disease struck Thanagar, he traveled back to the Earth for help and had his membership reinstated. Since he became active again, he appeared in JUSTICE LEAGUE #117-119, 121, 123-126, 128-131, 134-137, 139. At present, though he and his wife are cured of the disease, Thanagar's population is not.
What Hawkman's status with the JLA will be after his people are cured is not yet known. Hawkman's enemies on Earth have included the Matter Mater, Shadow Thief, Chac, the Gentleman Ghost, The Sorcerer, Mr. IQ ad assorted bird enemies such as the Raven, Shrike and Falcon. Hawkman appeared in his own series in BRAVE A BOLD #34-36, 42-44, MYSTERY IN SPACE #87-90. HAWKMAN #1-27, co-starred in ATOM A HAWKMAN #39-45, and was a back-up feature in DETECTIVE #428, 434, 445-446, 452. 454-455, 467.
J'Onn J'Onzz was teleported to Earth from his native planet Mars by a "robot brain" invented by Earth scientist Dr. Mark Erdel. Immediately after his success, Erdel had a heart attack and died before being able to return J'Onzz to Mars. On his homeworld, J'Onzz had been the leader of the Desert Dwellers who were at war with the Pole Dwellers. Having been defeated in battle, J'Onzz was brainwashed by the enemy into thinking Mars was at peace and sent into exile in a desolate region of Mars, which is where he was when Dr. Erdel's machine snatched him. On Earth, J'Onzz found himself gifted with a vast array of superpowers he did not possess on Mars, some a result of Earth's proximity to the sun, and others that emanated from the Tree of Blue Flame on Mars. Among these powers were invisibility, intangibility, levitation, mind-over matter, telepathy, and mimicry as well as many others he only displayed once. In his association with the Justice League, he relied primarily on his superhuman powers of strength, speed, visions, breath and invulnerability. J'Onzz major weakness, like that of all Martians, is fire, which robs him of all his powers by its very presence. He cannot use any of his Martian powers in any other form than his natural one. But he has all powers and abilities of anyone he mimics except Kryptonians. In FLASH #175, J'Onzz turned into Superman and was exposed to gold Kryptonite, which permanently removed the powers he would have in a Kryptonian form. In DETECTIVE #273, he was given a formula that made it so he could not use any of his other abilities while invisible.
Stranded on Earth since he could not breathe in space, J'Onzz decided to assume the guise of an Earthman and make himself useful by fighting crime. He took on the identity of John Jones, a detective in Middletown, Illinois. In his early career, he never appeared in public in his Martian guise and let his Earth self take credit for his crook-catching. Apparently, his only friends were his superiors. Lieutenant Sanders and Captain Harding, and fellow detective Diana Meade. He acquired an other-dimensional pet named Zook in DETECTIVE #311. In DETECTIVE #322, he abandoned his John Jones identity to devote fulltime to battling the menaces derived from the Idol-head of Diabolu (chronicled in HOUSE OF MYSTERY #143-158). He assumed a new secret identity, that of European playboy Marco Xavler while trying to track down the head of a criminal organization named Vulture in HOUSE OF MYSTERY #160-173.
After apprehending Faceless, the head of Vulture (who turned out to be the real Marco Xavier), he found his way back to Mars and learned of his altered memory and political exile. Discovering that the leader of the Pole Dwellers, Ben Blanx, planned to murder the Martian race so he could sell the planet for its mineral resources, J'Onzz journeyed back to Earth to enlist the aid of the JLA. In JLA #71, he returned to Mars and slew Blanx in personal combat, but not before the mad Martian wiped out the majority of Mars' inhabitants. J'Onzz was granted an honorary discharge from the JLA to accompany the surviving Martians to find a new home in the stars. He enlisted the JLA's aid once after his resignation (JLA #115) to fight against a if threat to the planet the Martians had found to colonize in WORLD'S FINEST #212.
Martian Manhunter was a founding member of the Justice League and served actively until JLA #28 (missing but two adventures) and then rather infrequently, participating but nine times in the forty-three issues before his resignation. During this period, he undoubtedly took several Leaves of Absence to correspond to changes in his personal life. He participated actively in BRAVE & BOLD #28-30 and JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-23, 26-28, 33, 36, 40-41, 44, 52, 54, 59, 61, and 71. Martian Manhunter had his own series in DETECTIVE #225-326 and HOUSE OF MYSTERY #143-173, co-starred in WORLD'S FINEST #212, and appeared in a back-up feature after his JLA resignation in ADVENTURE #439-441.
The Red Tornado was an android built by Thomas Oscar Morrow, an enemy of Flash and Green Lantern (of Earth-One), in a scheme of destroy the JLA and JSA in JLA #64-65. The android was programmed with "memories" that he was a Justice Society member and demanded to rejoin. Despite his humanoid form he had no facial features. He was given the power of generating a whirlwind with his limbs, which also enabled him to fly at super-speed. It has been theorized that in order to endow the android with the power. Morrow trapped Ulthoon, the Tornado Champion (of JLA #17) inside the artificial body, where the computer-brain took over the wind-being's consciousness. It is apparent that the Red Tornado had a death urge-twice sacrificing himself to an explosion. Perhaps it was a subconscious attempt by the Tornado Champion to wreck the android In order to get out. Following Morrow's defeat. Red Tornado remained with the Justice Society, but he was treated as a second-class member, chided for his propensity for failure and his lack of humanity. In JLA #102, he heroically delivered the Nebula Rod into the galactic hand threatening Earth-Two, and the JLA-JSA-Seven Soldiers assumed that nothing could survive the ensuing cataclysm.
However, the explosion merely opened a rift between dimensions that enabled the android's passage to Earth-One-On Earth-One, Morrow somehow located him, sculpted him a face, and reprogrammed him to destroy the Justice League, a plot that was discovered. It is not clear whether the explosion that sent the Tornado to Earth-One robbed him of his ability to vibrate between dimensions or if Morrow stripped him of this ability so he wouldn't escape.
Regardless, the android was incapable of vibrating back to Earth-Two. Hence, the JLA granted him temporary membership in JLA #106. JLA #108 depicted the Tornado as being concerned about returning: he recklessly entered the newly-built Transmatter Cube dimension-teleporter on its trial run. He did not try the cube again after his initial failure. Apparently, he reconsidered his lot and decided to stay with the JLA a while to gain more experience so he could prove himself in his former comrades' disparaging eyes. On Earth-One, he assumed the guise of John Smith, found a job as a laboratory technician for Dr. Bruce (Eclipso) Gordon, and made attempts at living a human life. He got involved with a human woman named Kathy Sutton in JLA #106.
In JLA #110, Red Tornado was given a gaudy new costume as a Christmas present that probably did little to enhance his self-image. He participated in JLA affairs from then on sporadically. Finally, in JLA #129, he once again succumbed to the death urge and sacrificed himself to an explosion while fighting the alien Nekron. The remnants of his body that were found indicate that it was destroyed in the explosion. Since he had lost the ability to vibrate between dimensions, he was not only able to use that way out a second time. With the destruction of the android body, the Tornado Champion would finally have been free. The JLA made no attempt to salvage and rebuild the android (though it would hardly be beyond the capacity of Superman or Green Lantern to do so), demonstrating their lack of regard for artificial beings. Red Tornado himself seemed to have little regard for other androids to judge by the lack of affinity he showed the android Amazo in JLA #112. At first the JLA was going to leave his remains adrift in space as a memorial, but since it could prove an astrogational hazard, they eventually rounded him up and made a memorial to him in their Souvenir Room.
Red Tornado never appeared in his own series, but participated in ten issues of JUSTICE LEAGUE as a Justice Society member (JLA #64-65, 72-4 82-83, 100, 102, 105) and twelve as a Justice League member (JLA #106-110. 112, 114, 117-119, 121, 127, 129). His only other major appearance was narrating one of Wonder Woman's membership trials in WONDER WOMAN #218.
On the planet Krypton, Kal-El (Kryptonese for "Star-Child") was the son of scientist Jor-El and his wife Lara. Discovering that Krypton's core was unstable, Jor-El warned the Science Council that planetary destruction was imminent. But due to too much time spent in deliberation, it was not possible to build a space ark to evacuate any of Krypton's population. As the planet underwent its death throes, Jor-El sent his four-year old son, Kal-El towards planet Earth aboard an experimental rocket. On Earth the child was found and adopted by Jonathan and Martha Kent who called him dark (Martha's maiden name) and instilled in him a high moral code and Earthian values. From the beginning the Kents knew of his otherwordly nature, and it was not long before they discovered his otherworldly capacities: he was incredibly strong, seemingly impervious to harm, able to float in the air, and was extraordinarily precocious. In a costume fashioned out of the blankets that accompanied him from Krypton, dark Kent began his crimefighting career in Smallville, Maryland as the teenaged Superboy. By then, he was aware of his other attributes: he could emit various radiation from his eyes such as X-rays and infra-red rays, and he had a visual acuity he could control as telescopic or microscopic vision. His lungs could expel great gusts of air. He had super-speed. He could control his mass, becoming nearly immovable or lighter than air. He could project his voice and had control over all his body's functions, automatic or otherwise. His only limitations were that he developed a form of blood poisoning when exposed to radioactive fragments of his native planet called kryptonite. (Fortunately, in SUPERMAN #233 all the kryptonite on Earth was transformed to iron making it a rather rare substance.) Since his powers derive from Earth's yellow sun, red solar radiation saps his superpowers and renders him non-super as all Kryptonian inhabitants were. Magic also saps him of his powers and it has been theorized that the wavelength to true magic is equivalent to that of Ted solar radiation.
Following the death of his foster parents, dark Kent went to college in Metropolis, Delaware, and upon graduation with a degree in journalism, sought employment as a reporter. Eventually he was hired by the Metropolis Daily Planet and used his powers to become one of its top reporters. When the Planet was bought out by Galaxy Broadcasting System, Kent was given a chance to be a television reporter, and was competent enough to become WGBS News anchorman, a position he still occupies today. As dark Kent, Superman has a multitude of friends and associates. For years enamored with his Superman alter ego, Daily Planet 'reporter Lola Lane has recently been more appreciative of dark Kent and probably realizes that both men are the same, though she has stopped trying to prove it. Jimmy Olsen, formerly a cub reporter for the Planet and now the paper's "Mr. Action" roving reporter, is a longtime friend and wears a Superman signal-watch. Planet editor Perry White is also close to Kent. His current employer, Galaxy president Morgan Edge, and sportscaster Steve Lombard figure prominently in Kent's daily life. As Superman, his best super-hero friend is Batman (Bruce Wayne) whom he first met in SUPERMAN #76 and has had regular adventures with since. Superman also confided his identity to the Flash before all JLAers mutually decided to do so. Superman's cousin, Kara Zor-El was another survivor of Krypton and followed in his crimefighting footsteps as Supergirl since her debut in ACTION #252. Superman has numerous friends in the bottle-city of Kandor, an entire Kryptonese city that survived the cataclysm because it had been reduced and stolen by the alien computer-being Brainiac in ACTION #242. Superman keeps Kandor in his Fortress of Solitude, (built in ACTION #241) hoping to enlarge it someday. Superman is also friends with Lana Lang, his childhood sweetheart (introduced in SUPERBOY #10), Lori Lemaris, the mermaid from Atlantis (introduced in SUPERMAN #129), the Legion of Super- Heroes of 30th Century Metropolis (first appeared in ADVENTURE #247) his it boyhood friend, Pete ROM (introduced in SUPERBOY #86) and Pete's son, Jonathan. Superman's greatest enemies include Lex Luthor, Toyman, Bizarro, Mr. Mxyzptlk, Terra-Man, and the Parasite, along with a band of Kryptonian criminals imprisoned in the Phantom "Zone (first appearing in ADVENTURE #283.)
Superman was one of the founding members of the Justice League and has been an active member ever since. He actively participated in JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-2, 4-5, 7, 9-13, 15-22, 25, 27-30, 32-34, 36, 40-44, 49, 52-53, 56, 59-61, 63, 65-66, 68-72, 74-75, 77-82, 84, 86-88, 90-92, 94, 96-101, 103-106, 109-113, 117-122, 125-131, 133-135, 137-140. He has appeared in his own series in ACTION #1-466, SUPERMAN #1-305, WORLD'S FINEST #1-70 in solo stories, #71-197, co-starring with Batman, #198-214 co-starring with other heroes, and #215-242 with Batman again. The adventures of Superman took place in the 1940's are generally acknowledged to be those of the Earth-Two Superman, and some of the 1950's adventures may be those of a third Superman, the father of a teenage son, who debuted in WORLD'S FINEST #215. This is not the Superman of Earth-One.
The Amazons are a race of women warriors who have lived on Paradise Island in the Bermuda Triangle since the days of the ancient Greeks. Because of their strenuous, disciplined life, all Amazons have strength and agility superior to normal humans. The Amazon society lived totally without contact with men, for if a man were to set foot on Paradise Island all Amazons would succumb to desire for him, lose their immortality and begin to grow old, due to a spell by Aphrodite. Once every generation, Paradise Island would disappear as the Amazons traveled to a magic dimension where they would be rejuvenated! and their dead revived. By this process, they were immortal, and had no need to reproduce. However, the Queen of the Amazons, Hippolyta, desired progeny, and sculpted a woman-child out of clay. As legend would have it, the goddess Aphrodite transformed the statue into a living being, and Hippolyta called the woman-child Diana. As a child, Diana was blessed with the attributes of three Greek/Roman gods: Mercury (Hermes), Hercules (Herakles), and Athena (Minerva), to augment her natural Amazon capacities. As a teenager she earned the nickname Wonder Girl and also earned three magic weapons: a lasso that caused anyone ensnared in it to obey her spoken commands; bracelets that enable her to deflect bullets; and a tiara as hard as diamond that returns when she throws it.
Although unable to fly, she learned to glide on air currents like most Amazons. She acquired the semi-sentient Robot Plane (so transparent that it seems invisible) which responds to her spoken commands for longer-distance travel. When fate brought pilot Steve Trevor to Paradise Island, Diana vied for the right to accompany him back to Man's World as the Amazon goodwill ambassador. With her godly powers, she easily overcame her sister contestants. In America, she assumed the guise of Diana Prince, military agent, so she could be near her beloved Steve, and became known as Wonder Woman in her Amazon outfit. Wonder Woman was, a founding member of the Justice League and remained active until JLA #66. In JLA #69, she requested a Leave of Absence from the group since she had renounced her Wonder Woman costume and powers. The Amazons had taken their periodic journey to the magic dimension to rejuvenate, but she declined to accompany them, preferring to stay with Steve Trevor. She began a series of exploits as a plainclothes adventurer from WONDER WOMAN #178-203 under the tutelage of I Ching, her Chinese mentor. Ching taught her martial arts to supplement her natural Amazon strength now that her godly attributes were gone. During this phase of her career, the world at large was not aware that Diana Prince, adventurer, had once been the Amazon called Wonder Woman. In WONDER WOMAN #180, Steve Trevor was killed and Diana Prince drifted with a succession of men including detectives Tim Trench and Jonny Double. When the Amazons returned from their rejuvenation pilgrimage in WONDER WOMAN #204, they found Diana suffering from amnesia, partially due to shock at I Ching's senseless death by a sniper's bullet. Her godly attributes returned with her sister, and she donned the, ceremonial Wonder Woman uniform once more. She soon resumed her customary dual identity. Later, she learned that her mother deliberately did not restore her entire memory and even provided her with false memories that Steve Trevor was still alive (recounted in WONDER WOMAN #208-211) since the Amazons' records of her life while they were away were incomplete. The JLA invited Wonder Woman to rejoin their ranks in WONDER WOMAN #212, but due to her distraught state of mind, she requested that she perform twelve trials as Hercules once did to prove she was worthy of read mission. The JLA monitored these trials in WONDER WOMAN #212-222.
After their successful completion, she again became active in the JLA with JLA #128. In WONDER WOMAN #223, Steve Trevor was brought back to life in the legendary manner that Wonder Woman herself was said to have been conceived. Following her career as a plainclothes adventurer and boutique owner, Diana Prince became an employee of the United Nations in New York City, working for Morgan Tracy's Crisis Bureau. Her worst enemies have been Ares the God of War, the Duke of Deception, The Cheetah, Dr. Cyber, the Angle Man and Dr. Psycho. Wonder Woman actively participated with the JLA in BRAVE & BOLD #28-30 and JUSTICE LEAGUE #1-31, 33-36, 40-41, 4345, 50, 53-54, 59, 61, 63, 65-66, 69, 71, 97, 100-102, 128-129, 132, 134, 138-140. She appeared in her own series in SENSATION #1-106, COMIC CAVALCADE #1-29, and WONDER WOMAN #1-228. The adventures of the Wonder Woman during the 1940's are' generally attributed to being those of the Earth-Two Wonder Woman, who had no Wonder Girl career. WONDER WOMAN #105 featured the debut of Wonder Girl.
Wonder Woman met her Earth-Two counterpart outside of JLA context for the first time in WONDER WOMAN #228, and the issue after began depicting untold 1940's adventures of the E-2 Amazon. JLA #42 reflected a change of footgear for the Amazon which took place in WONDER WOMAN #156, where the Earth-1 Amazon found herself re-enacting her counterpart's adventures. The Earth-One Wonder Woman's costume was slightly modified in WONDER WOMAN #204, following the Amazons' return from the magic dimension.